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  • CLASSES

    Antipropulsives

    DEA CLASS

    Rx, schedule IV

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral, antidiarrheal agent
    Contains difenoxin (synthetic opiate agonist structurally related to meperidine) and atropine (added in subtherapeutic quantities to discourage abuse or overdosage)

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Motofen

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Motofen Oral Tab: 0.025-1mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For adjunctive treatment in the management of acute nonspecific diarrhea and acute exacerbations of chronic functional diarrhea.
    Oral dosage
    Adults, Adolescents, and Children 12 years and older

    Initially, 2 tablets (2 mg) PO, then 1 tablet (1 mg) after each loose stool or every 3 to 4 hours as needed. Maximum of 8 tablets (8 mg) in any 24-hour period. Treatment should not extend beyond 48 hours. If clinical improvement is not apparent within 48 hours, atropine; difenoxin is not likely to be effective.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    8 mg/24 hours PO.

    Geriatric

    8 mg/24 hours PO.

    Adolescents

    8 mg/24 hours PO.

    Children

    12 years: 8 mg/24 hours PO.
    2—11 years: Safety and efficacy have not been established.
    < 2 years: Contraindicated.

    Infants

    Contraindicated.

    Neonates

    Contraindicated.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Dose with caution in patients with any level of abnormal liver function. Use extreme caution in patients with advanced liver disease; hepatic coma may be precipitated. Use is contraindicated in patients who are jaundiced.

    Renal Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in renal impairment are not available; dose with caution in patients with advanced hepatorenal syndrome.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Oral Solid Formulations

    Administer orally. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte replacement should continue. Correct severe dehydration or any electrolyte imbalance prior to administration.
    Each tablet contains 1 mg difenoxin (as the hydrochloride salt) and 0.025 mg atropine sulfate.

    STORAGE

    Motofen:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Atropine; difenoxin is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to difenoxin, atropine or any of the inactive ingredients. Although difenoxin has a chemical structure similar to that of meperidine hydrochloride, cross-hypersensitivity between meperidine and difenoxin has not been reported in the literature, and recommendations for using difenoxin in patients with a history of meperidine hypersensitivity, and vice versa, are not available. It should be noted that true opiate agonist hypersensitivity is rare. Meperidine is a member of the phenylpiperidine subclass; other opiate agonists that are also included in the phenylpiperidine subclass are sufentanil and fentanyl.
     
    Subtherapeutic doses of atropine, found in atropine; difenoxin, are not likely to cause prominent anticholinergic adverse effects; however, atropine; difenoxin should be avoided in patients in whom anticholinergic medications are contraindicated. The warnings and precautions for use of anticholinergic agents should be observed.

    Gastroenteritis, infection, pseudomembranous colitis

    Atropine; difenoxin is contraindicated in diarrhea associated with infection (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by organisms that penetrate the intestinal mucosa (e.g., toxigenic E. Coli, Salmonella species, Shigella) or diarrhea due to pseudomembranous colitis associated with broad spectrum antibiotics. In addition, atropine; difenoxin should not be used in cases of diarrhea caused by poisoning because expulsion of the toxic intestinal contents may be a necessary protective measure. Generally, antiperistaltic agents should not be used in these conditions because they may prolong and/or worsen diarrhea.

    Children, Down's syndrome, infants, neonates

    Atropine; difenoxin is contraindicated in neonates, infants, and children < 2 years of age because of a decreased margin of safety in younger age groups. The safety and efficacy of atropine;difenoxin in patients below the 12 years of age has not been established. Keep out of the reach of children, as overdosage may result in severe respiratory depression or coma, leading to brain damage or death. In children, particularly in patients with Down's syndrome, signs of atropinism may occur even at recommended doses. Signs of atropinism include dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, flushing, hyperthermia, tachycardia, and urinary retention. Also, young children may be predisposed to delayed difenoxin toxicity and have greater response variability.

    Pregnancy

    Atropine; difenoxin is classified in FDA pregnancy risk category C. There are no well controlled studies in pregnant women. Use during pregnancy only if the potential benefit to the mother justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

    Breast-feeding

    Difenoxin is an active metabolite of diphenoxylate and is excreted into breast milk. Atropine is also excreted into breast milk. There is a decreased margin of safety for the atropine; difenoxin product in neonates, infants and very young children. According to the manufacturer, because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue atropine; difenoxin, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. An alternate, such as loperamide, which is considered usually compatible with breast feeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics, may be considered. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    Dehydration, electrolyte imbalance

    If severe dehydration or electrolyte imbalance is manifested, atropine; difenoxin should be withheld until appropriate corrective therapy has been initiated. The use of this drug does not preclude the administration of appropriate fluid and electrolyte therapy. Dehydration, particularly in pediatric patients, may further influence the variability of response to the drug and may predispose to delayed difenoxin intoxication. Drug-induced inhibition of peristalsis may result in fluid retention in the colon, and this may further aggravate dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.

    Hepatic disease, jaundice

    Atropine; difenoxin is contraindicated in patients with jaundice. Use with extreme caution in patients with advanced hepatic disease or hepatorenal syndrome and in all patients with abnormal liver function tests since hepatic coma may be precipitated.

    Ulcerative colitis

    Atropine; difenoxin and other drugs that inhibit intestinal motility or prolong transit time can induce toxic megacolon in patients with acute ulcerative colitis. Patients with ulcerative colitis should be monitored closely and atropine; difenoxin therapy discontinued if signs of toxicity (e.g., abdominal distension) occur.

    Substance abuse

    Difenoxin hydrochloride, is chemically related to the narcotic meperidine. Although symptoms of dependence have not been reported in patients receiving therapeutic dosages of difenoxin, addiction to (dependence on) difenoxin is theoretically possible at high dosage. The recommended dosage should not be exceed in any patient, and atropine; difenoxin should be administered with considerable caution to patients who are receiving addicting drugs, to individuals known to be prone to substance abuse, or to those in whom histories suggest may increase the dosage on their own.

    MAOI therapy

    Since the chemical structure of difenoxin hydrochloride is similar to meperidine hydrochloride, the concurrent use of atropine; difenoxin with MAOI therapy may increase the risk of hypertensive crisis. Avoid concurrent use.

    Anticholinergic medications, geriatric

    Use atropine; difenoxin with caution in geriatric patients. Like with diphenoxylate, dependence, sedation, and cognitive impairment are potential concerns with the administration of difenoxin in the elderly. The elderly are generally more sensitive to the respiratory depressant effects of difenoxin. The subtherapeutic amount of atropine sulfate present in this product is to discourage deliberate overdosage and is not intended to produce significant clinical effects; however, some geriatric patients may be more sensitive to the anticholinergic effects.[42132] [43801] According to the Beers Criteria, atropine is considered a potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in geriatric patients due to uncertain effectiveness and strong anticholinergic activity when used as an oral antispasmodic. Avoid drugs with strong anticholinergic properties in geriatric patients with the following conditions due to the potential for symptom exacerbation or adverse effects: dementia/cognitive impairment (adverse CNS effects), delirium/high risk of delirium (new-onset or worsening delirium), or lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia in men (urinary retention or hesitancy).[63923] The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to the OBRA guidelines, medications with anticholinergic properties, such as atropine; diphenoxylate, may cause adverse effects that are common and problematic, especially in older individuals. The use of multiple anticholinergic medications may be particularly problematic because of cumulative effects.[60742]

    Potential for overdose or poisoning

    Use of atropine; difenoxin is associated with a significant potential for overdose or poisoning. Overdosages may result in severe respiratory depression and coma, possibly leading to permanent brain damage or death. Initial signs of overdosage may include dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, flushing, hyperthermia and tachycardia followed by lethargy or coma, hypotonic reflexes, nystagmus, pinpoint pupils, and respiratory depression. Signs of overdosage and respiratory depression may not be evident shortly after drug ingestion, but rather may occur from 12 to 30 hours post ingestion. Therefore, it is essential that dosage recommendations be strictly adhered to. In addition, this medication should be kept away from the reach of children to avoid accidental ingestion. In the event of overdosage, immediate medical attention should be sought and appropriate clinical measures taken; naloxone may be used in the treatment of respiratory depression caused by narcotic analgesics and pharmacologically related compounds such as difenoxin.

    Driving or operating machinery

    Atropine; difenoxin may produce drowsiness or dizziness. Clinicians should caution patients regarding activities that require mental alertness, such as driving or operating machinery.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    toxic megacolon / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ileus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pancreatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    constipation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    euphoria / Early / Incidence not known
    respiratory depression / Rapid / Incidence not known
    confusion / Early / Incidence not known
    depression / Delayed / Incidence not known
    urinary retention / Early / Incidence not known
    hyperthermia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    blurred vision / Early / Incidence not known

    Mild

    anorexia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    vomiting / Early / Incidence not known
    xerostomia / Early / Incidence not known
    nausea / Early / Incidence not known
    fatigue / Early / Incidence not known
    insomnia / Early / Incidence not known
    headache / Early / Incidence not known
    drowsiness / Early / Incidence not known
    dizziness / Early / Incidence not known
    flushing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    xerosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pruritus / Rapid / Incidence not known
    ocular pruritus / Rapid / Incidence not known
    urticaria / Rapid / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abatacept: (Minor) Because abatacept has been shown to potentiate the onset of respiratory infections, concomitant use of drugs that decrease mucociliary clearance should be used cautiously. Anticholinergics, such as atropine, have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when dihydrocodeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of dihydrocodeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of codeine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine.
    Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of hydrocodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of oxycodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Acetaminophen; Pamabrom; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Major) Pentazocine may partially block the analgesic, respiratory depressant and CNS depressant effects of pure opiate agonists. Due to their antagonistic properties, pentazocine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Pentazocine may also be used concurrently with some opiate agonists and cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of pure opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the pure opiate agonist. For example, some patients who received methadone for the daily treatment of narcotic dependence have experienced withdrawal symptoms after receiving pentazocine. Withdrawal symptoms may include anxiety, agitation, mood changes, hallucinations, dysphoria, weakness, and diarrhea. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when pentazocine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of pentazocine and anticholinergic medications may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine.
    Aclidinium: (Moderate) Although aclidinium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, there is the potential for aclidinium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other anticholinergics or antimuscarinics.Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of aclidinium with other anticholinergic medications, when possible.
    Aclidinium; Formoterol: (Moderate) Although aclidinium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, there is the potential for aclidinium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other anticholinergics or antimuscarinics.Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of aclidinium with other anticholinergic medications, when possible.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with aldesleukin can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use with caution. Patients developing mood disturbances, moderate to severe lethargy/somnolence while on aldesleukin should seek evaluation from their health care provider.
    Alfentanil: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when alfentanil is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of alfentanil and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Alosetron: (Contraindicated) Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from alosetron, like constipation, via a pharmacodynamic interaction. Constipation is the most frequently reported adverse effect with alosetron. Alosetron, if used with drugs such as antidiarrheals, may seriously worsen constipation, leading to events such as GI obstruction/impaction or paralytic ileus. (Major) Concomitant use of alosetron and anticholinergics, which can decrease GI motility, may seriously worsen constipation, leading to events such as GI obstuction, impaction, or paralytic ileus. Although specific recommendations are not available from the manufacturer, it would be prudent to avoid anticholinergics in patients taking alosetron.
    Aluminum Hydroxide: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Carbonate: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction. (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction. (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Amantadine: (Major) Amantadine may exhibit anticholinergic activity. Antimuscarinics, such as atropine, may potentiate the anticholinergic effects of amantadine, and may increase the risk of antimuscarinic-related side effects. (Moderate) Concomitant administration of amantadine and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause an additive decrease in GI motility and should be used cautiously.
    Ambenonium Chloride: (Contraindicated) Routine administration of atropine with ambenonium chloride is contraindicated. Belladonna derivatives, such as atropine, may suppress the parasympathomimetic symptoms of excessive gastrointestinal stimulation. This leaves only the more serious symptoms (fasciculation and paralysis of voluntary muscles) as signs of overdosage.
    Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Concurrent administration can potentiate the CNS and respiratory depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and the CNS depressant effects of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Both TCAs and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause constipation. Use caution during coadministration. Cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been rarely reported. In some cases, a dosage reduction of diphenoxylate or difenoxin might be needed to manage any noted side effects.
    Amobarbital: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Amoxapine: (Moderate) Depending on the specific agent, additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when amoxapine is used concomitantly with other anticholinergic agents. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive CNS effects are also possible when these drugs are combined with amoxapine. (Moderate) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Agents that inhibit intestinal motility or prolong intestinal transit time have been reported to induce toxic megacolon. Amoxapine also decreases GI motility and may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Antacids: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Anxiolytics; Sedatives; and Hypnotics: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Apraclonidine: (Minor) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with apraclonidine can theoretically potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with aripiprazole can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Drugs that can cause CNS depression, if used concomitantly with asenapine, may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness. Caution should be used when asenapine is given in combination with other centrally-acting medications including opiate agonists.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of codeine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with orphenadrine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of atropine may be enhanced when combined with other commonly used drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects including orphenadrine. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carisoprodol can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of codeine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carisoprodol can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of oxycodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Atomoxetine: (Major) Atropine and atomoxetine should be combined cautiously in patients with known cardiac disease. Atropine or scopolamine may alter the heart rate; the predominant clinical effect is sinus tachycardia. An additive effect on heart rate may occur as atomoxetine may elevate heart rate as well as blood pressure.
    Atropine: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. Atropine is commonly added in small amounts to these formulas for diarrhea as a deterrant to diphenoxylate abuse. However, therapeutic doses of systemic atropine may cause additive side effects. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. Atropine is commonly added in small amounts to these formulas for diarrhea as a deterrant to diphenoxylate abuse. However, therapeutic doses of systemic atropine may cause additive side effects. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive. (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as hyoscyamine. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Atropine; Edrophonium: (Major) Coadministration of Atropine and Edrophonium Chloride can produce mutually antagonistic effects. (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. Atropine is commonly added in small amounts to these formulas for diarrhea as a deterrant to diphenoxylate abuse. However, therapeutic doses of systemic atropine may cause additive side effects. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Azelastine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when azelastine is combined with other CNS depressants including opiate agonists. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when azelastine is combined with other CNS depressants including opiate agonists. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted.
    Baclofen: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with baclofen can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Barbiturates: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as the belladonna alkaloids. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when opium is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of opium and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when benzhydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of benzhydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Benzodiazepines: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of benzodiazepines with CNS-depressant drugs, such as diphenoxylate/difenoxin, can potentiate the CNS effects of either agent.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as hyoscyamine. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Bethanechol: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between antidiarrheals and drugs that enhance peristalsis are theoretically possible. It is wise to avoid use of antidiarrheals in patients who require bethanechol.
    Bisacodyl: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with bismuth may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with bismuth may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with bismuth may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Botulinum Toxins: (Moderate) The use of systemic antimuscarinic/anticholinergic agents following the administration of botulinum toxins may result in a potentiation of systemic anticholinergic effects (e.g., blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, or urinary retention).
    Brompheniramine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carbetapentane can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as glycopyrrolate. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Buprenorphine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of buprenorphine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Buprenorphine is an opioid analgesic. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Concurrent use of buprenorphine and antidiarrheals, such as atropine; diphenoxylate, can lead to severe constipation and possibly additive CNS depression.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Naloxone can antagonize the therapeutic efficacy of diphenoxylate in addition to precipitating withdrawal symptoms in patients who are physically dependent on opiate drugs including diphenoxylate. (Major) Reserve concomitant use of buprenorphine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Buprenorphine is an opioid analgesic. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Concurrent use of buprenorphine and antidiarrheals, such as atropine; diphenoxylate, can lead to severe constipation and possibly additive CNS depression.
    Bupropion: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of atropine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects including bupropion. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur.
    Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Major) When naltrexone is used as adjuvant treatment of opiate or alcohol dependence, use is contraindicated in patients currently receiving opiate agonists. Naltrexone will antagonize the therapeutic benefits of opiate agonists and will induce a withdrawal reaction in patients with physical dependence to opioids. Also, patients should be opiate-free for at least 7-10 days prior to initiating naltrexone therapy. If there is any question of opioid use in the past 7-10 days and the patient is not experiencing opioid withdrawal symptoms and/or the urine is negative for opioids, a naloxone challenge test needs to be performed. If a patient receives naltrexone, and an opiate agonist is needed for an emergency situation, large doses of opiate agonists may ultimately overwhelm naltrexone antagonism of opiate receptors. Immediately following administration of exogenous opiate agonists, the opiate plasma concentration may be sufficient to overcome naltrexone competitive blockade, but the patient may experience deeper and more prolonged respiratory depression and thus, may be in danger of respiratory arrest and circulatory collapse. Non-receptor mediated actions like facial swelling, itching, generalized erythema, or bronchoconstriction may occur presumably due to histamine release. A rapidly acting opiate agonist is preferred as the duration of respiratory depression will be shorter. Patients receiving naltrexone may also experience opiate side effects with low doses of opiate agonists. If the opiate agonist is taken in such a way that high concentrations remain in the body beyond the time naltrexone exerts its therapeutic effects, serious side effects may occur. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of atropine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects including bupropion. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur.
    Buspirone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of CNS depressants, such as buspirone, can potentiate the effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin, which may potentially lead to respiratory depression, CNS depression, sedation, or hypotensive responses. If concurrent use of codeine and buspirone is imperative, reduce the dose of one or both drugs.
    Butabarbital: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of codeine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Butorphanol: (Moderate) Butorphanol is a synthetic parenteral opiate agonist-antagonist. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Concurrent use of butorphanol and antidiarrheals, such as diphenoxylate, can lead to severe constipation and possibly additive CNS depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when butorphanol is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of butorphanol and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Calcium Carbonate: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of calcium carbonate and anticholinergics. Antacids may interfere with the absorption of anticholinergics.
    Calcium Carbonate; Famotidine; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of calcium carbonate and anticholinergics. Antacids may interfere with the absorption of anticholinergics.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of calcium carbonate and anticholinergics. Antacids may interfere with the absorption of anticholinergics.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of calcium carbonate and anticholinergics. Antacids may interfere with the absorption of anticholinergics.
    Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of calcium carbonate and anticholinergics. Antacids may interfere with the absorption of anticholinergics.
    Calcium Carbonate; Simethicone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of calcium carbonate and anticholinergics. Antacids may interfere with the absorption of anticholinergics.
    Calcium Phosphate, Supersaturated: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium Oxybates: (Major) Sodium oxybate should not be used in combination with CNS depressant anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics or other sedative CNS depressant drugs. Specifically, sodium oxybate use is contraindicated in patients being treated with sedative hypnotic drugs. Sodium oxybate (GHB) has the potential to impair cognitive and motor skills. Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with sodium oxybate can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin.
    Calcium; Vitamin D: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of calcium carbonate and anticholinergics. Antacids may interfere with the absorption of anticholinergics.
    Cannabidiol: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of cannabidiol and atropine. CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of cannabidiol.
    Capsaicin; Metaxalone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with metaxalone can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carbetapentane can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carbetapentane can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carbetapentane can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carbetapentane can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carbetapentane can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carbetapentane can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carbetapentane can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carbetapentane can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carbetapentane can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa: (Minor) The doses of antimuscarinics and levodopa may need to be adjusted when the drugs are given simultaneously. Through central antimuscarinic actions, anticholinergics can potentiate the dopaminergic effects of levodopa. While some patients may benefit from this interaction, clinicians should be ready to decrease doses of levodopa if an antimuscarinic is added.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Minor) The doses of antimuscarinics and levodopa may need to be adjusted when the drugs are given simultaneously. Through central antimuscarinic actions, anticholinergics can potentiate the dopaminergic effects of levodopa. While some patients may benefit from this interaction, clinicians should be ready to decrease doses of levodopa if an antimuscarinic is added.
    Carbinoxamine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with carisoprodol can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Castor Oil: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Celecoxib; Tramadol: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of tramadol and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Cenobamate: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of cenobamate and atropine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Cetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with cetirizine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant cetirizine and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with cetirizine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant cetirizine and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Chlophedianol; Dexbrompheniramine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect.
    Chlorcyclizine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Concurrent administration can potentiate the CNS and respiratory depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and the CNS depressant effects of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Both TCAs and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause constipation. Use caution during coadministration. Cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been rarely reported. In some cases, a dosage reduction of diphenoxylate or difenoxin might be needed to manage any noted side effects.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as clidinium. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of codeine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when dihydrocodeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of dihydrocodeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of hydrocodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Chlorpromazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including chlorpromazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with clonidine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Chlorzoxazone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with chlorzoxazone can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Cholinergic agonists: (Major) The muscarinic actions of drugs known as parasympathomimetics, including both direct cholinergic receptor agonists and cholinesterase inhibitors, can antagonize the antimuscarinic actions of anticholinergic drugs, and vice versa.
    Cisapride: (Major) The use of drugs that decrease GI motility, such as diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may pharmacodynamically oppose the effects of cisapride. In general, it would be illogical to use diphenoxylate/difenoxin in combination with prokinetic agents. (Moderate) Atropine is an anticholinergic drug and thus can antagonize the action of drugs that enhance gastrointestinal motility, such as cisapride. Use this combination with caution.
    Citalopram: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with citalopram can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Citric Acid; Potassium Citrate; Sodium Citrate: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Clemastine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Clobazam: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with clobazam can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Clomipramine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration can potentiate the CNS and respiratory depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and the CNS depressant effects of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Both TCAs and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause constipation. Use caution during coadministration. Cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been rarely reported. In some cases, a dosage reduction of diphenoxylate or difenoxin might be needed to manage any noted side effects.
    Clonidine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with clonidine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Clozapine: (Major) Avoid co-prescribing clozapine with other anticholinergic medicines that can cause gastrointestinal hypomotility, due to a potential to increase serious constipation, ileus, and other potentially serious bowel conditions that may result in hospitalization. Clozapine exhibits potent anticholinergic effects. Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when clozapine is used concomitantly with anticholinergic agents. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the anticholinergic agent used. (Moderate) Diphenoxylate decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as clozapine, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate if used concomitantly.
    Codeine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of codeine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of codeine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Major) Reserve concomitant use of codeine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Major) Reserve concomitant use of codeine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant promethazine and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of codeine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant promethazine and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Colesevelam: (Moderate) Colesevelam may decrease the absorption of atropine if coadministered. To minimize potential for interactions, consider administering atropine at least 1 hour before or at least 4 hours after colesevelam; monitor drug response and/or serum drug concentrations.
    COMT inhibitors: (Moderate) COMT inhibitors should be given cautiously with other agents that cause CNS depression, including systemic atropine, due to the possibility of additive sedation. Patients should be advised to avoid driving or other tasks requiring mental alertness until they know how the combination affects them.
    Crofelemer: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration. (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and other antidiarrheals are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking antidiarrheal medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. During clinical trials with crofelemer, patients were excluded if they were actively using other antidiarrheal medications. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Cyclizine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Cyclobenzaprine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant cyclobenzaprine and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Cyproheptadine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Dantrolene: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with dantrolene can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Darifenacin: (Moderate) Antidiarrheals (e.g. atropine; diphenoxylate, atropine; difenoxin, or loperamide) decrease GI motility. Agents that inhibit intestinal motility or prolong intestinal transit time have been rarely reported to induce toxic megacolon. Constipation and dry mouth are reported side effects of darifenacin. Additive GI, CNS, or other anticholinergic effects may occur if used concomitantly.
    Dasiglucagon: (Major) The concomitant use of intravenous glucagon and anticholinergics increases the risk of gastrointestinal adverse reactions due to additive effects on inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. Concomitant use is not recommended.
    Desipramine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration can potentiate the CNS and respiratory depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and the CNS depressant effects of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Both TCAs and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause constipation. Use caution during coadministration. Cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been rarely reported. In some cases, a dosage reduction of diphenoxylate or difenoxin might be needed to manage any noted side effects.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine.
    Dexbrompheniramine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Dexchlorpheniramine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Dextromethorphan; Bupropion: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of atropine may be enhanced when combined with other drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects including bupropion. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of quinidine may be significant and may be enhanced when combined with antimuscarinics.
    Difelikefalin: (Moderate) Monitor for dizziness, somnolence, mental status changes, and gait disturbances if concomitant use of difelikefalin with CNS depressants is necessary. Concomitant use may increase the risk for these adverse reactions.
    Digoxin: (Moderate) Anticholinergics, because of their ability to cause tachycardia, can antagonize the beneficial actions of digoxin in atrial fibrillation/flutter. Routine therapeutic monitoring should be continued when an antimuscarinic agent is prescribed with digoxin until the effects of combined use are known.
    Dimenhydrinate: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Diphenoxylate; Atropine: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. Atropine is commonly added in small amounts to these formulas for diarrhea as a deterrant to diphenoxylate abuse. However, therapeutic doses of systemic atropine may cause additive side effects. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Disopyramide: (Moderate) Coadministration of disopyramide and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause an additive decrease in GI motility and should be used cautiously. (Moderate) In addition to its electrophysiologic effects, disopyramide exhibits clinically significant anticholinergic properties. These can be additive with other anticholinergics. Clinicians should be aware that urinary retention, particularly in males, and aggravation of glaucoma are realistic possibilities of using disopyramide with other anticholinergic agents.
    Docusate Sodium; Senna: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) The therapeutic benefits of donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, may be diminished during chronic co-administration with antimuscarinics or medications with potent anticholinergic activity. When concurrent use is not avoidable, the patient should be monitored for cognitive decline and anticholinergic side effects. Clinicians should generally avoid multiple medications with anticholinergic activity in the patient with dementia. Some of the common selective antimuscarinic drugs for bladder problems, (such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine, tolerodine, or solifenacin), do not routinely cause problems with medications used for dementia, but may cause anticholinergic side effects in some patients. Atropine may be used to offset bradycardia in cholinesterase inhibitor overdose.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) The adverse effects of anticholinergics, such as dry mouth, urinary hesitancy or blurred vision may be enhanced with use of memantine; dosage adjustments of the anticholinergic drug may be required when memantine is coadministered. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates that chronic anticholinergic use in patients with Alzheimer's Disease may possibly have an adverse effect on cognitive function. Therefore, the effectiveness of drugs used in the treatment of Alzheimer's such as memantine, may be adversely affected by chronic antimuscarinic therapy. (Moderate) The therapeutic benefits of donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, may be diminished during chronic co-administration with antimuscarinics or medications with potent anticholinergic activity. When concurrent use is not avoidable, the patient should be monitored for cognitive decline and anticholinergic side effects. Clinicians should generally avoid multiple medications with anticholinergic activity in the patient with dementia. Some of the common selective antimuscarinic drugs for bladder problems, (such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine, tolerodine, or solifenacin), do not routinely cause problems with medications used for dementia, but may cause anticholinergic side effects in some patients. Atropine may be used to offset bradycardia in cholinesterase inhibitor overdose.
    Doxepin: (Moderate) Concurrent administration can potentiate the CNS and respiratory depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and the CNS depressant effects of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Both TCAs and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause constipation. Use caution during coadministration. Cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been rarely reported. In some cases, a dosage reduction of diphenoxylate or difenoxin might be needed to manage any noted side effects.
    Doxylamine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Doxylamine; Pyridoxine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Dronabinol: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with dronabinol can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of dronabinol with anticholinergics is necessary. Concurrent use of dronabinol, THC with anticholinergics may result in additive drowsiness, hypertension, tachycardia, and possibly cardiotoxicity.
    Edrophonium: (Major) Coadministration of Atropine and Edrophonium Chloride can produce mutually antagonistic effects.
    Eluxadoline: (Major) Avoid use of eluxadoline with medications that may cause constipation, such as anticholinergics. Discontinue use of eluxadoline in patients who develop severe constipation lasting more than 4 days.
    Ephedrine: (Moderate) Carefully monitor blood pressure in patients who have received both ephedrine and atropine; atropine augments the pressor effect of ephedrine.
    Ephedrine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Carefully monitor blood pressure in patients who have received both ephedrine and atropine; atropine augments the pressor effect of ephedrine.
    Erythromycin: (Minor) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. It may antagonize the muscarinic and/or prokinetic effects of erythromycin (when used for GI motility). Use these drugs in combination should be avoided.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with escitalopram can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Esketamine: (Moderate) Closely monitor patients receiving esketamine and atropine for sedation and other CNS depressant effects. Instruct patients who receive a dose of esketamine not to drive or engage in other activities requiring alertness until the next day after a restful sleep.
    Eszopiclone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Ethanol: (Major) Advise patients to avoid alcohol consumption while taking CNS depressants. Alcohol consumption may result in additive CNS depression.
    Ethotoin: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with hydantoins can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Etomidate: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if diphenoxylate/difenoxin is used concomitantly with other CNS depressants, including etomidate.
    Fenfluramine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of fenfluramine and atropine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Fentanyl: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of fentanyl and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Fesoterodine: (Moderate) Antidiarrheals (e.g. atropine; diphenoxylate, atropine; difenoxin, or loperamide) decrease GI motility. Agents that inhibit intestinal motility or prolong intestinal transit time have been rarely reported to induce toxic megacolon. Constipation and dry mouth are reported side effects of fesoterodine. Additive GI, CNS, or other anticholinergic effects may occur if used concomitantly.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine.
    Flavoxate: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as flavoxate. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with fluoxetine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Fluphenazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including fluphenazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) There is the potential for umeclidinium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other anticholinergics or antimuscarinics. Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of umeclidinium with other anticholinergic medications when possible.
    Fosphenytoin: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with hydantoins can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Gabapentin: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of atropine and gabapentin. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Galantamine: (Moderate) The therapeutic benefits of galantamine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, may be diminished during chronic co-administration with antimuscarinics or medications with potent anticholinergic activity. When concurrent use is not avoidable, the patient should be monitored for cognitive decline and anticholinergic side effects. Clinicians should generally avoid multiple medications with anticholinergic activity in the patient with dementia. Some of the common selective antimuscarinic drugs for bladder problems, (such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine, tolerodine, or solifenacin), do not routinely cause problems with medications used for dementia, but may cause anticholinergic side effects in some patients. Atropine may be used to offset bradycardia in cholinesterase inhibitor overdose.
    Glucagon: (Major) The concomitant use of intravenous glucagon and anticholinergics increases the risk of gastrointestinal adverse reactions due to additive effects on inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. Concomitant use is not recommended.
    Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as glycopyrrolate. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as glycopyrrolate. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Glycopyrronium: (Moderate) Although glycopyrronium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after topical application, there is the potential for glycopyrronium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other antimuscarinics. Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of glycopyrronium with other anticholinergic medications.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of hydrocodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Major) Reserve concomitant use of hydrocodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect.
    Guaifenesin; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine.
    Guanabenz: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with guanabenz can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Guanfacine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with guanfacine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Haloperidol can potentiate the actions of other CNS depressants, such as opiate agonists, Caution should be exercised with simultaneous use of these agents due to potential excessive CNS effects.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of hydrocodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as systemic homatropine. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Hydantoins: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with hydantoins can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with methyldopa can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Hydrocodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of hydrocodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of hydrocodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Major) Reserve concomitant use of hydrocodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Hydromorphone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydromorphone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydromorphone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hydroxyzine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Hyoscyamine: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as hyoscyamine. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as hyoscyamine. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy. (Moderate) Use anticholinergics, such as atropine, and concomitant solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride with caution due to risk for gastrointestinal mucosal injury. Anticholinergics may decrease gastric motility and increase the transit time of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride leading to prolonged contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of oxycodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine.
    Imipramine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration can potentiate the CNS and respiratory depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and the CNS depressant effects of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Both TCAs and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause constipation. Use caution during coadministration. Cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been rarely reported. In some cases, a dosage reduction of diphenoxylate or difenoxin might be needed to manage any noted side effects.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as glycopyrrolate. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Iodine; Potassium Iodide, KI: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Ipratropium: (Moderate) Although ipratropium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, there is the potential for additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other antimuscarinic or anticholinergic medications. Per the manufacturer, avoid coadministration.
    Ipratropium; Albuterol: (Moderate) Although ipratropium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, there is the potential for additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other antimuscarinic or anticholinergic medications. Per the manufacturer, avoid coadministration.
    Itraconazole: (Moderate) Antimuscarinics can raise intragastric pH. This effect may decrease the oral bioavailability of itraconazole; antimuscarinics should be used cautiously in patients receiving itraconazole.
    Ketamine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with ketamine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Lactulose: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Lasmiditan: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lasmiditan and atropine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Laxatives: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Lemborexant: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lemborexant and atropine. Dosage adjustments of lemborexant and atropine may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive CNS effects. The risk of next-day impairment, including impaired driving, is increased if lemborexant is taken with other CNS depressants.
    Levocetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with cetirizine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant cetirizine and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Levodopa: (Minor) The doses of antimuscarinics and levodopa may need to be adjusted when the drugs are given simultaneously. Through central antimuscarinic actions, anticholinergics can potentiate the dopaminergic effects of levodopa. While some patients may benefit from this interaction, clinicians should be ready to decrease doses of levodopa if an antimuscarinic is added.
    Levorphanol: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when levorphanol is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of levorphanol and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Linaclotide: (Moderate) Anticholinergics can promote constipation and pharmacodynamically oppose the action of drugs used for the treatment of constipation or constipation-associated irritable bowel syndrome, such as linaclotide.
    Linezolid: (Moderate) Linezolid may enhance the hypertensive effect of diphenoxylate. Closely monitor for increased blood pressure during coadministration. Linezolid is an antibiotic that is also a weak, reversible nonselective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Since the chemical structure of diphenoxylate hydrochloride is similar to that of meperidine hydrochloride, the concurrent use of diphenoxylate with MAOIs may, in theory, precipitate hypertensive crisis.
    Lofexidine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive hypotension and sedation during coadministration of lofexidine and atropine. Lofexidine can potentiate the effects of CNS depressants.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine.
    Loxapine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with loxapine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Loxapine has anticholinergic activity. The concomitant use of loxapine and other anticholinergic drugs can increase the risk of anticholinergic adverse reactions including exacerbation of glaucoma, constipation, and urinary retention. Depending on the agent used, additive drowsiness/dizziness may also occur.
    Lubiprostone: (Moderate) Antimuscarinic drugs can promote constipation and pharmacodynamically oppose the action of drugs used for the treatment of constipation, such as lubiprostone. The clinical significance of these potential interactions is uncertain.
    Lumateperone: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and atropine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with lurasidone can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Macimorelin: (Major) Avoid use of macimorelin with drugs that may blunt the growth hormone response to macimorelin, such as antimuscarinic anticholinergic agents. Healthcare providers are advised to discontinue anticholinergics at least 1 week before administering macimorelin. Use of these medications together may impact the accuracy of the macimorelin growth hormone test.
    Magnesium Citrate: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction. (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Sulfate; Sodium Sulfate: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as maprotiline, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of atropine may be enhanced when combined with other commonly used drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects including maprotiline.
    Meclizine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Memantine: (Moderate) The adverse effects of anticholinergics, such as dry mouth, urinary hesitancy or blurred vision may be enhanced with use of memantine; dosage adjustments of the anticholinergic drug may be required when memantine is coadministered. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates that chronic anticholinergic use in patients with Alzheimer's Disease may possibly have an adverse effect on cognitive function. Therefore, the effectiveness of drugs used in the treatment of Alzheimer's such as memantine, may be adversely affected by chronic antimuscarinic therapy.
    Meperidine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when meperidine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of meperidine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant promethazine and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when meperidine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of meperidine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Meprobamate: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Metaxalone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with metaxalone can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Methadone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when methadone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of methadone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as hyoscyamine. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Methocarbamol: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with methocarbamol can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Methohexital: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Methscopolamine: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth muscle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as methscopolamine. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Methylcellulose: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Methyldopa: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with methyldopa can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Metoclopramide: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin may antagonize the muscarinic and/or prokinetic effects of other drugs, including metoclopramide. (Moderate) Drugs with significant antimuscarinic activity, such as anticholinergics and antimuscarinics, may slow GI motility and thus may reduce the prokinetic actions of metoclopramide. Monitor patients for an increase in gastrointestinal complaints, such as reflux or constipation. Additive drowsiness may occur as well. The clinical significance is uncertain.
    Metyrapone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with metyrapone can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects, such as drowsiness or dizziness.
    Metyrosine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with metyrosine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Mineral Oil: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Minocycline: (Minor) Injectable minocycline contains magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants like diphenoxylate. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Mirtazapine: (Moderate) Consistent with the pharmacology of mirtazapine and the drug's side effect profile, additive effects may occur with other CNS-active agents, including diphenoxylate/difenoxin. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness and sedation during coadministration of mirtazapine and atropine due to the risk for additive CNS depression.
    Mitotane: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with mitotane can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Molindone: (Moderate) Antipsychotics are associated with anticholinergic effects; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use of molindone and other drugs having anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may also occur. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with molindone can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Contraindicated) The concomitant administration of diphenoxylate or difenoxin and monoamine oxidase inhibitors can cause hypertensive crisis. Avoid concurrent use.
    Morphine: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of morphine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Morphine; Naltrexone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of morphine and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Nabilone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with nabilone can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Concurrent use of nabilone with anticholinergics may result in pronounced tachycardia and drowsiness.
    Nalbuphine: (Major) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with nalbuphine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Naloxone: (Major) Naloxone can antagonize the therapeutic efficacy of diphenoxylate in addition to precipitating withdrawal symptoms in patients who are physically dependent on opiate drugs including diphenoxylate.
    Naltrexone: (Major) When naltrexone is used as adjuvant treatment of opiate or alcohol dependence, use is contraindicated in patients currently receiving opiate agonists. Naltrexone will antagonize the therapeutic benefits of opiate agonists and will induce a withdrawal reaction in patients with physical dependence to opioids. Also, patients should be opiate-free for at least 7-10 days prior to initiating naltrexone therapy. If there is any question of opioid use in the past 7-10 days and the patient is not experiencing opioid withdrawal symptoms and/or the urine is negative for opioids, a naloxone challenge test needs to be performed. If a patient receives naltrexone, and an opiate agonist is needed for an emergency situation, large doses of opiate agonists may ultimately overwhelm naltrexone antagonism of opiate receptors. Immediately following administration of exogenous opiate agonists, the opiate plasma concentration may be sufficient to overcome naltrexone competitive blockade, but the patient may experience deeper and more prolonged respiratory depression and thus, may be in danger of respiratory arrest and circulatory collapse. Non-receptor mediated actions like facial swelling, itching, generalized erythema, or bronchoconstriction may occur presumably due to histamine release. A rapidly acting opiate agonist is preferred as the duration of respiratory depression will be shorter. Patients receiving naltrexone may also experience opiate side effects with low doses of opiate agonists. If the opiate agonist is taken in such a way that high concentrations remain in the body beyond the time naltrexone exerts its therapeutic effects, serious side effects may occur.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine.
    Neostigmine: (Major) Coadministration of atropine and neostigmine may produce a mutually antagonistic effect.
    Norepinephrine: (Major) Pharmacologically, sufficient doses of atropine block various types of vagal reflex bradycardia. Because norepinephrine causes vagal reflex bradycardia, the concomitant use of atropine and norepinephrine may increase the pressor effect of norepinephrine.
    Nortriptyline: (Moderate) Concurrent administration can potentiate the CNS and respiratory depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and the CNS depressant effects of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Both TCAs and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause constipation. Use caution during coadministration. Cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been rarely reported. In some cases, a dosage reduction of diphenoxylate or difenoxin might be needed to manage any noted side effects.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with octreotide may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when olanzapine and anticholinergics are used concomitantly; use with caution. Use of olanzapine and other drugs with anticholinergic activity can increase the risk for severe gastrointestinal adverse reactions related to hypomotility. Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic activity. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the anticholinergic agent used. (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, such as olanzapine, may produce additive effects with antidiarrheals, such as diphenoxylate/difenoxin, if used concomitantly.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when olanzapine and anticholinergics are used concomitantly; use with caution. Use of olanzapine and other drugs with anticholinergic activity can increase the risk for severe gastrointestinal adverse reactions related to hypomotility. Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic activity. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the anticholinergic agent used. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with fluoxetine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, such as olanzapine, may produce additive effects with antidiarrheals, such as diphenoxylate/difenoxin, if used concomitantly.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when olanzapine and anticholinergics are used concomitantly; use with caution. Use of olanzapine and other drugs with anticholinergic activity can increase the risk for severe gastrointestinal adverse reactions related to hypomotility. Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic activity. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the anticholinergic agent used. (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, such as olanzapine, may produce additive effects with antidiarrheals, such as diphenoxylate/difenoxin, if used concomitantly.
    Oliceridine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of oliceridine with atropine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of oliceridine with atropine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Also monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when oliceridine is used concomitantly with atropine. The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase the risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Opiate Agonists: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with orphenadrine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of atropine may be enhanced when combined with other commonly used drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects including orphenadrine. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Oxycodone: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of oxycodone and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Oxymorphone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when oxymorphone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of oxymorphone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Papaverine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with papaverine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Paroxetine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant anticholinergic medication and paroxetine use. Concomitant use may result in additive anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Pegvisomant: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin is a synthetic opiate agonist with a chemical structure similar to that of meperidine. In clinical trials, patients taking opiate agonists often required higher serum pegvisomant concentrations to achieve appropriate IGF-I suppression compared with patients not receiving opiate agonists. The mechanism of this interaction is unknown.
    Pentazocine: (Major) Pentazocine may partially block the analgesic, respiratory depressant and CNS depressant effects of pure opiate agonists. Due to their antagonistic properties, pentazocine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Pentazocine may also be used concurrently with some opiate agonists and cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of pure opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the pure opiate agonist. For example, some patients who received methadone for the daily treatment of narcotic dependence have experienced withdrawal symptoms after receiving pentazocine. Withdrawal symptoms may include anxiety, agitation, mood changes, hallucinations, dysphoria, weakness, and diarrhea. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when pentazocine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of pentazocine and anticholinergic medications may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Pentazocine; Naloxone: (Major) Naloxone can antagonize the therapeutic efficacy of diphenoxylate in addition to precipitating withdrawal symptoms in patients who are physically dependent on opiate drugs including diphenoxylate. (Major) Pentazocine may partially block the analgesic, respiratory depressant and CNS depressant effects of pure opiate agonists. Due to their antagonistic properties, pentazocine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Pentazocine may also be used concurrently with some opiate agonists and cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of pure opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the pure opiate agonist. For example, some patients who received methadone for the daily treatment of narcotic dependence have experienced withdrawal symptoms after receiving pentazocine. Withdrawal symptoms may include anxiety, agitation, mood changes, hallucinations, dysphoria, weakness, and diarrhea. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when pentazocine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of pentazocine and anticholinergic medications may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Pentobarbital: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Perampanel: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with perampanel can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Perphenazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including perphenazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including perphenazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur. (Moderate) Concurrent administration can potentiate the CNS and respiratory depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and the CNS depressant effects of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Both TCAs and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause constipation. Use caution during coadministration. Cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been rarely reported. In some cases, a dosage reduction of diphenoxylate or difenoxin might be needed to manage any noted side effects.
    Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. Atropine is commonly added in small amounts to these formulas for diarrhea as a deterrant to diphenoxylate abuse. However, therapeutic doses of systemic atropine may cause additive side effects. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive. (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as hyoscyamine. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Phenothiazines: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth muscle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to other agents with CNS and anticholinergic effects, such as the phenothiazines. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased sweating and increased body temperature, especially in hot weather, during concomitant use of topiramate and other drugs that predispose persons to heat-related disorders, such as anticholinergic medications. Concomitant use increases the risk for oligohidrosis and hyperthermia.
    Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect.
    Phenytoin: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with hydantoins can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Physostigmine: (Major) Coadministration of atropine and physostigmine may produce a mutually antagonistic effect.
    Pimozide: (Moderate) Due to the effects of pimozide on cognition, it should be used cautiously with other CNS depressants including diphenoxylate/difenoxin.
    Polyethylene Glycol: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Polyethylene Glycol; Electrolytes: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Polyethylene Glycol; Electrolytes; Ascorbic Acid: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Polyethylene Glycol; Electrolytes; Bisacodyl: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Potassium Acetate: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Potassium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy. (Moderate) Use anticholinergics, such as atropine, and concomitant solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride with caution due to risk for gastrointestinal mucosal injury. Anticholinergics may decrease gastric motility and increase the transit time of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride leading to prolonged contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa.
    Potassium Chloride: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy. (Moderate) Use anticholinergics, such as atropine, and concomitant solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride with caution due to risk for gastrointestinal mucosal injury. Anticholinergics may decrease gastric motility and increase the transit time of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride leading to prolonged contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa.
    Potassium Citrate: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Potassium Citrate; Citric Acid: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Potassium Gluconate: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Potassium Iodide, KI: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Potassium: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy.
    Pramipexole: (Moderate) The use of opiate agonists in combination with pramipexole may increase the risk of clinically significant sedation via a pharmacodynamic interaction.
    Pramlintide: (Major) Pramlintide slows gastric emptying and the rate of nutrient delivery to the small intestine. Medications that have depressive effects on GI motility or slow nutritive absorption could potentiate the actions of pramlintide leading to further reductions in blood glucose concentrations and possibly hypoglycemia. Patients with gastrointestinal disease or taking drugs that affect gastrointestinal motility were excluded from clinical trials. Per the manufacturer, pramlintide therapy should not be considered in patients taking medications that significantly alter gastric motility such as diphenoxylate/difenoxin, Clinicians should advise their patients to monitor blood glucose concentrations closely when initiating or discontinuing one of these drugs. (Major) Pramlintide therapy should not be considered in patients taking medications that alter gastric motility, such as anticholinergics. Pramlintide slows gastric emptying and the rate of nutrient delivery to the small intestine. Medications that have depressive effects on GI could potentiate the actions of pramlintide.
    Pregabalin: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with pregabalin can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of atropine and pregabalin. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Primidone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Procainamide: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of procainamide may be significant and may be enhanced when combined with anticholinergics. Anticholinergic agents administered concurrently with procainamide may produce additive antivagal effects on AV nodal conduction, although this is not as well documented for procainamide as for quinidine.
    Procarbazine: (Moderate) Opiate agonists may cause additive sedation or other CNS effects when given in combination with procarbazine.
    Prochlorperazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including prochlorperazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Promethazine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant promethazine and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Promethazine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant promethazine and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by sympathomimetic agents, such as phenylephrine, and increases its pressor effect. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant promethazine and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Protriptyline: (Moderate) Concurrent administration can potentiate the CNS and respiratory depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and the CNS depressant effects of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Both TCAs and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause constipation. Use caution during coadministration. Cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been rarely reported. In some cases, a dosage reduction of diphenoxylate or difenoxin might be needed to manage any noted side effects.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine.
    Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine: (Major) Atropine blocks the vagal reflex bradycardia caused by pseudoephedrine, and increases its pressor effect. Patients need to be asked whether they have taken pseudoephedrine before receiving atropine. (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Psyllium: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Pyridostigmine: (Major) Coadministration of atropine and pyridostigmine bromide may produce a mutually antagonistic effect.
    Pyrilamine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Quetiapine: (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant quetiapine and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Quinidine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of quinidine may be significant and may be enhanced when combined with antimuscarinics.
    Rasagiline: (Major) The concomitant administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) can cause hypertensive crisis. Although rasagiline differs from most other MAOIs because it is MAO-B selective at recommended doses, it may be advisable to avoid co-administration with diphenoxylate/difenoxin until specific information becomes available about the safety of this combination. (Moderate) MAOIs exhibit secondary anticholinergic actions. Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when MAOIs are used concomitantly with antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive CNS effects are also possible when many of these drugs are combined with MAOIs.
    Remifentanil: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when remifentanil is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of remifentanil and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Revefenacin: (Moderate) Although revefenacin is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, there is the potential for additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other antimuscarinics. Avoid concomitant administration with other anticholinergic and antimucarinic medications.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with risperidone can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Rivastigmine: (Moderate) The therapeutic benefits of rivastigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, may be diminished during chronic co-administration with antimuscarinics or medications with potent anticholinergic activity. When concurrent use is not avoidable, the patient should be monitored for cognitive decline and anticholinergic side effects. Clinicians should generally avoid multiple medications with anticholinergic activity in the patient with dementia. Some of the common selective antimuscarinic drugs for bladder problems, (such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine, tolerodine, or solifenacin), do not routinely cause problems with medications used for dementia, but may cause anticholinergic side effects in some patients. Atropine may be used to offset bradycardia in cholinesterase inhibitor overdose.
    Secobarbital: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with barbiturates can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Secretin: (Major) Discontinue anticholinergic medications at least 5 half-lives before administering secretin. Patients who are receiving anticholinergics at the time of stimulation testing may be hyporesponsive to secretin stimulation and produce a false result. Consider additional testing and clinical assessments for aid in diagnosis.
    Sedating H1-blockers: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant sedating H1-blocker and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Selegiline: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of selegiline and diphenoxylate or difenoxin due to the theoretical risk of hypertensive crisis. The chemical structure of difenoxin and diphenoxylate are similar to opioids that are known to precipitate these events when used with MAO inhibitors.
    Senna: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Sildenafil: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate/difenoxin is a synthetic opiate agonist with a chemical structure similar to that of meperidine. Prolonged erections have been reported in two patients taking sildenafil with dihydrocodeine. In both cases, patients reported erections subsided immediately after orgasm when taking sildenafil alone. Although more data are needed, use caution when prescribing opiate agonists and sildenafil concomitantly.
    Sincalide: (Moderate) Sincalide-induced gallbladder ejection fraction may be affected by anticholinergics. False study results are possible in patients with drug-induced hyper- or hypo-responsiveness; thorough patient history is important in the interpretation of procedure results.
    Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Sodium Oxybate: (Major) Sodium oxybate should not be used in combination with CNS depressant anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics or other sedative CNS depressant drugs. Specifically, sodium oxybate use is contraindicated in patients being treated with sedative hypnotic drugs. Sodium oxybate (GHB) has the potential to impair cognitive and motor skills. Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with sodium oxybate can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin.
    Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate; Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Sodium Sulfate; Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Chloride: (Moderate) Drugs that decrease GI motility, like diphenoxylate/difenoxin, may increase the risk of GI irritation from sustained-release solid oral dosage forms of potassium salts. Immediate release potassium formulations may be preferred in patients requiring diphenoxylate/difenoxin therapy. (Moderate) Use anticholinergics, such as atropine, and concomitant solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride with caution due to risk for gastrointestinal mucosal injury. Anticholinergics may decrease gastric motility and increase the transit time of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride leading to prolonged contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa.
    Solifenacin: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when drugs with antimuscarinic properties like solifenacin are used concomitantly with other antimuscarinics. Blurred vision and dry mouth would be common effects. Clinicians should note that additive antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur. (Moderate) Antidiarrheals (e.g. atropine; diphenoxylate, atropine; difenoxin, or loperamide) decrease GI motility. Agents that inhibit intestinal motility or prolong intestinal transit time have been rarely reported to induce toxic megacolon. Constipation and dry mouth are reported side effects of solifenacin. Additive GI, CNS, or other anticholinergic effects may occur if used concomitantly.
    Sorbitol: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate can decrease GI motility. Drugs used to treat constipation, such as laxatives, would counteract the effect of antidiarrheals. In general, it would be illogical to concurrently administer these drugs at the same time. If an antidiarrheal medication is needed, it would be wise to temporarily discontinue use of agents with laxative effects.
    Sufentanil: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when sufentanil is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of sufentanil and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Tapentadol: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Tapentadol should be used cautiously with anticholinergic medications since additive depressive effects on GI motility or bladder function may occur. Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Opiate analgesics combined with antimuscarinics can cause severe constipation or paralytic ileus, especially with chronic use. Additive CNS effects like drowsiness or dizziness may also occur.
    Tegaserod: (Major) Drugs that exert significant anticholinergic properties such as antimuscarinics may pharmacodynamically oppose the effects of prokinetic agents such as tegaserod. Avoid administering antimuscarinics along with tegaserod under most circumstances. Inhaled respiratory antimuscarinics, such as ipratropium, are unlikely to interact with tegaserod. Ophthalmic anticholinergics may interact if sufficient systemic absorption of the eye medication occurs.
    Tenapanor: (Moderate) Anticholinergics can promote constipation and pharmacodynamically oppose the action of drugs used for the treatment of constipation or constipation-associated irritable bowel syndrome, such as tenapanor.
    Tetrabenazine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with tetrabenazine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Minor) Coadministration of thiazides and antimuscarinics (e.g., atropine and biperiden) may result in increased bioavailability of the thiazide. This is apparently a result of a decrease in gastrointestinal motility and rate of stomach emptying by the antimuscarinic agent. In addition, diuretics can increase urinary frequency, which may aggravate bladder symptoms.
    Thioridazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when drugs with anticholinergic properties like thioridazine are used concomitantly with anticholinergic agents. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the interacting agent.
    Thiothixene: (Moderate) Anticholinergics may have additive effects with thiothixene, an antipsychotic with the potential for anticholinergic activity. Monitor for anticholinergic-related adverse effects such as xerostomia, blurred vision, constipation, and urinary retention during concurrent use.
    Tiotropium: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of anticholinergic medications and tiotropium due to increased risk for anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Tiotropium; Olodaterol: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of anticholinergic medications and tiotropium due to increased risk for anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Tolterodine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when tolterodine is used concomitantly with other antimuscarinics. When possible, avoid concurrent use, especially in the elderly, who are more susceptible to the anticholinergic effects. Consider alternatives to these other medications, if available. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on bladder smooth muscle, but also on GI function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Blurred vision, constipation, and dry mouth may be more prominent additive effects. With many of the listed agents, additive drowsiness may also occur when combined. (Moderate) Antidiarrheals (e.g., atropine; diphenoxylate, atropine; difenoxin, and loperamide) decrease GI motility. Agents that inhibit intestinal motility or prolong intestinal transit time have been rarely reported to induce toxic megacolon. Tolterodine has been reported to cause dry mouth and constipation as potential side effects. Other anticholinergic and CNS effects may also be additive.
    Topiramate: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased sweating and increased body temperature, especially in hot weather, during concomitant use of topiramate and other drugs that predispose persons to heat-related disorders, such as anticholinergic medications. Concomitant use increases the risk for oligohidrosis and hyperthermia.
    Tramadol: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of tramadol and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Tramadol; Acetaminophen: (Major) Reserve concomitant use of tramadol and atropine for patients in whom alternate treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required and monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is necessary, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose and monitor for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Concomitant use can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death as well as urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events.
    Trazodone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with trazodone can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Moderate) Concurrent administration can potentiate the CNS and respiratory depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and the CNS depressant effects of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Both TCAs and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause constipation. Use caution during coadministration. Cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been rarely reported. In some cases, a dosage reduction of diphenoxylate or difenoxin might be needed to manage any noted side effects. (Moderate) Monitor for unusual drowsiness or excess sedation and for signs or symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity during concomitant tricyclic antidepressant and atropine use. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression or anticholinergic adverse effects.
    Trifluoperazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including trifluoperazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Trihexyphenidyl: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as trihexyphenidyl. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Trimethobenzamide: (Moderate) Trimethobenzamide has CNS depressant effects and may cause drowsiness. The concurrent use of trimethobenzamide with other medications that cause CNS depression, like the anticholinergics, may potentiate the effects of either trimethobenzamide or the anticholinergic.
    Trimipramine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration can potentiate the CNS and respiratory depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin and the CNS depressant effects of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Both TCAs and diphenoxylate/difenoxin may cause constipation. Use caution during coadministration. Cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been rarely reported. In some cases, a dosage reduction of diphenoxylate or difenoxin might be needed to manage any noted side effects.
    Triprolidine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when diphenoxylate/difenoxin is combined with other CNS depressants. Diphenoxylate/difenoxin decreases GI motility. Other drugs that also decrease GI motility, such as sedating H1 blockers, may produce additive effects with diphenoxylate/difenoxin if used concomitantly.
    Trospium: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when trospium is used concomitantly with other antimuscarinics. When possible, avoid concurrent use, especially in the elderly, who are more susceptible to the anticholinergic effects. Consider alternatives to these other medications, if available. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on bladder smooth muscle, but also on GI function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Blurred vision, constipation, and dry mouth may be more prominent additive effects. With many of the listed agents, additive drowsiness may also occur when combined with trospium.
    Umeclidinium: (Moderate) There is the potential for umeclidinium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other anticholinergics or antimuscarinics. Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of umeclidinium with other anticholinergic medications when possible.
    Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) There is the potential for umeclidinium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other anticholinergics or antimuscarinics. Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of umeclidinium with other anticholinergic medications when possible.
    Vibegron: (Moderate) Vibegron should be administered with caution in patients taking anticholinergics because of potential for an increased risk of urinary retention. Monitor for symptoms of urinary difficulties or urinary retention. Patients may note constipation or dry mouth with use of these drugs together.
    Zaleplon: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Ziprasidone: (Moderate) Ziprasidone has the potential to impair cognitive and motor skills. Additive CNS depressant effects are possible when ziprasidone is used concurrently with any CNS depressant, including diphenoxylate/difenoxin.
    Zolpidem: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration.
    Zonisamide: (Moderate) Zonisamide use is associated with case reports of decreased sweating, hyperthermia, heat intolerance, or heat stroke and should be used with caution in combination with other drugs that may also predispose patients to heat-related disorders like anticholinergics.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Atropine; difenoxin is classified in FDA pregnancy risk category C. There are no well controlled studies in pregnant women. Use during pregnancy only if the potential benefit to the mother justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

    Difenoxin is an active metabolite of diphenoxylate and is excreted into breast milk. Atropine is also excreted into breast milk. There is a decreased margin of safety for the atropine; difenoxin product in neonates, infants and very young children. According to the manufacturer, because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue atropine; difenoxin, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. An alternate, such as loperamide, which is considered usually compatible with breast feeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics, may be considered. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Difenoxin: Difenoxin, is the principal active metabolite of diphenoxylate. It exerts its effect locally on the smooth muscle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. At recommended dosages to treat diarrhea, diphenoxylate and difenoxin do not exhibit opiate-like effects in the central nervous system. At higher dosages, addiction or physical dependance is theoretically possible.
    Atropine: Atropine is added to these products to discourage abuse. The anticholinergic effects of atropine are generally insignificant when used in normal doses. However, signs of atropinism (e.g., dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, and tachycardia) may become evident in overdose or abuse, or in children at recommended doses, particularly in patients with Down’s Syndrome.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Atropine; difenoxin is administered orally. Difenoxin is metabolized to an inactive hydroxylated metabolite by the liver. Diphenoxylate hydrochloride, from which difenoxin is derived, was found to inhibit hepatic microsomal enzymes at doses of 2 mg/kg/day in animal studies; therefore, difenoxin has the potential to prolong the rate of elimination of other drugs metabolized by the hepatic enzyme system. Both difenoxin and its metabolites are excreted, mainly as conjugates, in urine and feces. Plasma levels of difenoxin decline to less than 10% of their peak values within 24 hours and to less than 1% of their peak values within 72 hours. This decline parallels the appearance of difenoxin and its metabolites in the urine.

    Oral Route

    Following oral administration of atropine; difenoxin (2 mg), difenoxin is rapidly and extensively absorbed. Mean peak plasma levels of approximately 160 ng/mL occur within 40 to 60 minutes in most patients. The drug has a duration of effect of 3—4 hours.