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    Biguanide and Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors Antidiabetic Combinations

    BOXED WARNING

    Acidemia, hypoxemia, lactic acidosis, metabolic acidosis

    Dapagliflozin; metformin is contraindicated in patients with acute or chronic metabolic acidosis. It should not be used in patients with lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any diabetic patient with metabolic acidosis lacking evidence of ketoacidosis (ketonuria and ketonemia). Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation; when it occurs, it is fatal in approximately 50% of cases. Lactic acidosis may also occur in association with a number of pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, and whenever there is significant tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxemia or with increasing renal dysfunction. Cardiovascular collapse, acute heart attack, septicemia, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may also increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis is characterized by elevated blood lactate levels, acidemia, electrolyte disturbances, an increased anion gap, and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio. When metformin is implicated as the cause of lactic acidosis, metformin plasma levels more than 5 mcg/mL are generally found. The reported incidence of lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin is very low; in more than 20,000 patient-years exposure to metformin in clinical trials, there have been no reports of lactic acidosis and approximately 0.03 cases/1,000 patient-years have been estimated with post-marketing surveillance. A nested case-control study of 50,048 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus demonstrated that during concurrent use of oral diabetes drugs, there were 6 identified cases of lactic acidosis. The crude incidence rate was 3.3 cases per 100,000 person-years in patients treated with metformin; it should be noted that all the subjects had relevant comorbidities known to be risk factors for lactic acidosis. The onset of lactic acidosis is often subtle, and accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress. There may be associated hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradycardia with more marked acidemia. The patient and the prescriber must be aware of such symptoms and the patient should be instructed to notify the physician immediately if they occur. If ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis is suspected, evaluation of the following parameters is necessary: serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, and if indicated, blood pH, lactate, pyruvate, and metformin levels. In addition, dapagliflozin; metformin must be stopped immediately and appropriate corrective measures initiated.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral combination of metformin with a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor
    Used in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus; to reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in adults with T2DM and established CV disease or multiple CV risk factors; to reduce the risk of CV death and hospitalization for HF in adults with HF with reduced ejection fraction (NYHA class II-IV); and to reduce sustained eGFR decline, end-stage kidney disease, CV death, and hospitalization for HF in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at risk of disease progression
    Not recommended for improving glycemic control in patients with T2DM and eGFR less than 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2 or for treating CKD in patients with polycystic kidney disease or those requiring/recent history of immunosuppressive therapy for CKD

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Xigduo XR

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Xigduo XR Oral Tab ER: 10-1000mg, 10-500mg, 2.5-1000mg, 5-1000mg, 5-500mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in combination with diet and exercise.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Individualize the starting dose based on the patient's current regimen. Give dose PO once daily in the morning with food. Assess volume status prior to initiation of therapy and if necessary, correct volume depletion. IN PATIENTS NOT CURRENTLY TAKING DAPAGLIFLOZIN: The recommended starting dose of dapagliflozin is 5 mg PO once daily. Patients taking an evening dose of metformin XR should skip their last dose before starting dapagliflozin; metformin. Adjust dose based on effectiveness and tolerability. Max: metformin 2,000 mg/day and dapagliflozin 10 mg/day PO.

    For the reduction of heart failure hospitalizations risk in adults with T2DM and established cardiovascular (CV) disease or multiple CV risk factors.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Individualize the starting dose based on the patient's current regimen. The recommended dose of dapagliflozin is 10 mg PO once daily in the morning with food. Assess volume status prior to initiation of therapy and if necessary, correct volume depletion. Patients taking an evening dose of metformin XR should skip their last dose before starting dapagliflozin; metformin. Adjust dose based on effectiveness and tolerability. Max: metformin 2,000 mg/day and dapagliflozin 10 mg/day PO.

    For the reduction of cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in adults with T2DM and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (NYHA class II to IV).
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Individualize the starting dose based on the patient's current regimen. The recommended dose of dapagliflozin is 10 mg PO once daily in the morning with food. Assess volume status prior to initiation of therapy and if necessary, correct volume depletion. Patients taking an evening dose of metformin XR should skip their last dose before starting dapagliflozin; metformin. Adjust dose based on effectiveness and tolerability. Max: metformin 2,000 mg/day and dapagliflozin 10 mg/day PO.

    For the reduction of risk of sustained eGFR decline, end-stage kidney disease, cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in adults with T2DM and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at risk of progression.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Individualize the starting dose based on the patient's current regimen. The recommended dose of dapagliflozin is 10 mg PO once daily in the morning with food. Assess volume status prior to initiation of therapy and if necessary, correct volume depletion. Patients taking an evening dose of metformin XR should skip their last dose before starting dapagliflozin; metformin. Adjust dose based on effectiveness and tolerability. Max: metformin 2,000 mg/day and dapagliflozin 10 mg/day PO. LIMIT OF USE: Dapagliflozin; metformin is not recommended in patients with polycystic kidney disease or patients requiring or with a recent history of immunosuppressive therapy for the treatment of kidney disease. Dapagliflozin is not expected to be effective in these populations.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    Dapagliflozin 10 mg/day PO and metformin 2000 mg/day PO.

    Geriatric

    Dapagliflozin 10 mg/day PO and metformin 2000 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Not indicated.

    Neonates

    Not indicated.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Avoid use in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease as there is an increased risk of lactic acidosis secondary to the use of metformin.

    Renal Impairment

    eGFR 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 or more: No dosage adjustment needed.
    eGFR 30 to 45 mL/min/1.73 m2: Do not inititiate dapagliflozin; metformin in these patients. In patients currently taking this product, assess the benefit and risk of continuing therapy if the eGFR is persistently less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2. Dapagliflozin is likely to be ineffective in these patients and metformin initiation is not recommended.
    eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2: Use is contraindicated.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis:
    Use is contraindicated. Metformin is dialyzable; hemodialysis will efficiently remove accumulated metformin in the case of drug-induced lactic acidosis, provided metformin is halted.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Oral Solid Formulations

    Do not cut, crush or chew the extended-release tablet; swallow whole.
    Administer once daily in the morning with food.
    Occasionally, the inactive ingredients will be eliminated in the feces as a soft, hydrated mass that may resemble the original tablet.

    STORAGE

    Xigduo XR:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Dapagliflozin; metformin is contraindicated in patients with a known history of a serious hypersensitivity to dapagliflozin or metformin, including a history of angioedema to dapagliflozin. Hypersensitivity reactions, including urticaria, serious anaphylactic reactions, severe cutaneous reactions, and angioedema were reported in patients treated with dapagliflozin during clinical programs. Discontinue use of dapagliflozin; metformin if hypersensitivity reactions occur, and treat per standard of care; monitor until signs and symptoms resolve.

    Diabetic ketoacidosis, surgery, type 1 diabetes mellitus

    The use of dapagliflozin; metformin is contraindicated in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). This combination is also not intended for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Both conditions require the use of insulin. Fatal cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in patients receiving sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including dapagliflozin. In clinical trials in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the risk of DKA was increased in patients who received SGLT2 inhibitors compared to patients who received placebo.[58334] Patients treated with dapagliflozin; metformin who present with signs and symptoms consistent with metabolic severe acidosis should be assessed for ketoacidosis regardless of presenting blood glucose levels, as ketoacidosis may be present even if blood glucose levels are less than 250 mg/dL. If ketoacidosis is suspected, discontinue dapagliflozin; metformin, evaluate the patient and institute prompt treatment. Treatment of ketoacidosis may require insulin, fluid and carbohydrate replacement. In many of the postmarketing reports, and particularly in patients with type 1 diabetes, the presence of ketoacidosis was not immediately recognized, and the institution of treatment was delayed because presenting blood glucose levels were below those typically expected for DKA (often less than 250 mg/dL). Signs and symptoms at presentation were consistent with metabolic severe acidosis and included nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, generalized malaise, and shortness of breath. In some but not all cases, factors predisposing to ketoacidosis such as insulin dose reduction, acute febrile illness, reduced caloric intake due to illness or surgical procedures, pancreatic disorders suggesting insulin deficiency, and alcohol abuse were identified. Before initiating dapagliflozin; metformin, consider factors in the patient history that may predispose to ketoacidosis including pancreatic insulin deficiency from any cause, caloric restriction, and alcohol abuse. For patients who undergo scheduled surgery, dapagliflozin; metformin should be temporarily discontinued at least 3 days before surgery. Temporarily suspend therapy for restricted food or fluid intake and consider monitoring for ketoacidosis (e.g., prolonged fasting due to acute illness or surgical procedure). Ensure risk factors for ketoacidosis are resolved before restarting dapagliflozin; metformin. Educate patients on the signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis and instruct patients to discontinue this product and seek medical attention immediately if signs and symptoms occur.[58334] [59629] [60400]

    Acidemia, hypoxemia, lactic acidosis, metabolic acidosis

    Dapagliflozin; metformin is contraindicated in patients with acute or chronic metabolic acidosis. It should not be used in patients with lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any diabetic patient with metabolic acidosis lacking evidence of ketoacidosis (ketonuria and ketonemia). Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation; when it occurs, it is fatal in approximately 50% of cases. Lactic acidosis may also occur in association with a number of pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, and whenever there is significant tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxemia or with increasing renal dysfunction. Cardiovascular collapse, acute heart attack, septicemia, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may also increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis is characterized by elevated blood lactate levels, acidemia, electrolyte disturbances, an increased anion gap, and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio. When metformin is implicated as the cause of lactic acidosis, metformin plasma levels more than 5 mcg/mL are generally found. The reported incidence of lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin is very low; in more than 20,000 patient-years exposure to metformin in clinical trials, there have been no reports of lactic acidosis and approximately 0.03 cases/1,000 patient-years have been estimated with post-marketing surveillance. A nested case-control study of 50,048 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus demonstrated that during concurrent use of oral diabetes drugs, there were 6 identified cases of lactic acidosis. The crude incidence rate was 3.3 cases per 100,000 person-years in patients treated with metformin; it should be noted that all the subjects had relevant comorbidities known to be risk factors for lactic acidosis. The onset of lactic acidosis is often subtle, and accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress. There may be associated hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradycardia with more marked acidemia. The patient and the prescriber must be aware of such symptoms and the patient should be instructed to notify the physician immediately if they occur. If ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis is suspected, evaluation of the following parameters is necessary: serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, and if indicated, blood pH, lactate, pyruvate, and metformin levels. In addition, dapagliflozin; metformin must be stopped immediately and appropriate corrective measures initiated.

    Acute heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac disease, cardiogenic shock, heart failure

    According to the manufacturer, metformin should be used with caution in patients with congestive heart failure requiring pharmacologic treatment. However, a systematic review evaluating antidiabetic agents and outcomes in patients with heart failure and diabetes concluded that metformin is not associated with any measurable harm in patients with heart failure; in this analysis, metformin was associated with reduced mortality. It should be noted that in acute congestive heart failure characterized by acute hypoxia, lactic acidosis has occurred in patients taking metformin. To reduce the risk of lactic acidosis, metformin should be promptly withheld in the presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia. Acute hypoxia and acute cardiac disease (e.g., acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or acute myocardial infarction) and other conditions characterized by acute hypoxia have been associated with the development of lactic acidosis and may cause prerenal azotemia. If such events occur, discontinue dapagliflozin; metformin.

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, dialysis, hypovolemia, renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Dapagliflozin; metformin is contraindicated in patients with renal failure or severe renal impairment, as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 30 mL/minute/1.73 m2, including patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis. Metformin is substantially eliminated by the kidney, and the risk of lactic acidosis increases with the degree of intrinsic renal disease or impairment. The pharmacodynamic response to dapagliflozin declines with increasing severity of renal impairment. Before initiation of treatment and periodically after that, obtain an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to assess renal function. Do not initiate this product if eGFR is 30 to 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2; assess the benefit and risk of continuing therapy if eGFR falls persistently below this level. Dapagliflozin is not expected to be effective for improving glycemic control in adults with an eGFR less than 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2. In those patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment, such as the elderly, renal function should be assessed more frequently. Dapagliflozin is not recommended for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with polycystic kidney disease (i.e., autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease) or patients requiring or with a recent history of immunosuppressive therapy for CKD; dapagliflozin is not expected to be effective in these populations.[58334] [60699] [60874] Renal function abnormalities can occur. Initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors, including dapagliflozin, causes a small increase in serum creatinine and decrease in eGFR. In patients with normal or mildly impaired renal function at baseline, these changes in serum creatinine and eGFR generally occur within weeks of starting therapy and then stabilize. The acute effect on eGFR reverses after treatment discontinuation, suggesting acute hemodynamic changes may play a role in the renal function changes observed with dapagliflozin. Increases that do not fit this pattern should prompt further evaluation to exclude the possibility of acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury, in some cases requiring hospitalization and dialysis, has been reported postmarketing with the use of dapagliflozin; some reports involved patients younger than 65 years of age. According to guidelines, randomized clinical outcome trials of advanced kidney disease or high cardiovascular disease risk with normal kidney function have not shown that SGLT2 inhibitors promote acute kidney injury. Despite these findings, the manufacturer recommends that before initiating dapagliflozin, consider factors that may predispose patients to acute kidney injury prior to starting them on dapagliflozin; metformin, including hypovolemia; chronic renal insufficiency; elderly age; congestive heart failure; pre-existing renal disease; and concomitant medications such as diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and NSAIDs. Consider temporarily discontinuing dapagliflozin; metformin in any setting of reduced oral intake such as acute illness or fasting, or fluid losses (e.g., gastrointestinal illness or excessive heat exposure). Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury. If acute kidney injury occurs, discontinue dapagliflozin; metformin promptly and institute treatment.[58334] [60699] [60874] Dapagliflozin was evaluated in 2 studies that included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and moderate renal impairment (eGFR 45 to 59 mL/minute/1.73 m2 and eGFR of 30 to 59 mL/minute/1.73 m2, respectively). In the study of patients with an eGFR 30 to 59 mL/minute/1.73 m2, 13 patients receiving dapagliflozin experienced fractures of the bone vs. 0% receiving placebo. In the DAPA-CKD trial that enrolled patients with chronic kidney disease (eGFR 25 to 75 mL/minute/1.73 m2) and the DAPA-HF trial that enrolled patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and eGFR 30 to 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2, the safety profile across eGFR subgroups was consistent with the known safety profile of dapagliflozin.[56603]

    Dehydration, hypotension

    Dapagliflozin may cause intravascular volume depletion, which may present as symptomatic hypotension or acute transient changes in creatinine. Patients at risk include those with dehydration or reduced volume status, particularly in patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), the elderly, patients receiving diuretics or other medications that interfere with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system [e.g., angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)], or patients with low systolic blood pressure. Volume status should be assessed and corrected before initiating dapagliflozin; metformin in patients with one or more of these characteristics. Additionally, withholding food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension, and renal dysfunction. Dapagliflozin; metformin should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension or dehydration after initiating therapy. To reduce the risk of lactic acidosis from metformin, promptly discontinue/withhold dapagliflozin; metformin in the presence of any condition associated with significant dehydration.

    Alcoholism, ethanol ingestion, ethanol intoxication, hepatic disease

    Metformin administration increases the risk for lactic acidosis. Since the liver is important for clearing accumulated lactic acid, metformin is not recommended in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease as the risk of lactic acidosis may be increased. Hepatic disease also causes altered gluconeogenesis, which may affect glycemic control. Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Patients should be warned against excessive ethanol ingestion (ethanol intoxication) while taking dapagliflozin; metformin due to the increased risk for lactic acidosis. Those with ethanol intoxication are also particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects of oral antidiabetic agents. Dapagliflozin; metformin use should be avoided by those patients with alcoholism.

    Balanitis, pyelonephritis, tissue necrosis, urinary tract infection (UTI), vaginitis

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors such as dapagliflozin may cause an increased risk for severe urinary tract infection (UTI), including urosepsis and pyelonephritis, and these cases can result in hospitalization. Patients should be told to report any signs of UTI and seek medical attention if they experience symptoms such as a feeling of burning when urinating or the need to urinate often or right away, pain in the lower part of the stomach area or pelvis, fever, or blood in the urine. Promptly treat if indicated if a UTI is suspected.[60400] [58334] Treatment with dapagliflozin also increases the risk of genital mycotic infections. Use dapagliflozin; metformin cautiously in patients with a history of genital fungal infections, including vaginitis or balanitis, and uncircumcised males; these patients were more likely to develop genital mycotic infections during treatment with dapagliflozin. Monitor and treat appropriately if a genital mycotic infection occurs. All patients beginning therapy with a SGLT2 inhibitor or currently receiving dapagliflozin; metformin should be closely monitored for a serious rare, life-threatening infection, called necrotizing fasciitis (tissue necrosis) of the perineum, also referred to as Fournier's gangrene. Patients should be warned to promptly seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms of tenderness, erythema, or swelling in the genital or perineal area, fever, or malaise, and such patients should be evaluated for necrotizing fasciitis. Cases have been reported in both females and males. Serious outcomes have included hospitalization, multiple surgeries, and death. If Fournier's gangrene is suspected, discontinue dapagliflozin; metformin and institute prompt treatment with antibiotics and if necessary, surgical debridement. Closely monitor blood glucose levels, and provide appropriate alternative therapy for glycemic control.[63482] [58334]

    Diarrhea, vomiting

    Gastrointestinal side effects are common during metformin initiation. However, once a patient is stabilized on any dose of metformin, GI symptoms are unlikely to be drug related. Later occurrence of GI symptoms may be due to a change in clinical status and may increase the risk of lactic acidosis or other serious disease. Patients stable on metformin therapy who complain of an increase in GI symptoms should undergo laboratory investigation to determine the etiology of the GI symptoms. These include, but are not limited to, diarrhea and nausea/vomiting. Furthermore, withholding metformin therapy until the cause of the GI symptoms is known may be necessary. Finally, diarrhea and nausea/vomiting may alter gastric emptying and caloric intake, which could all affect blood glucose control, especially increasing the risk of low blood glucose. Patients should be advised to contact their prescriber if an increase in gastrointestinal symptoms occurs while taking dapagliflozin; metformin; patients should also be advised to monitor their blood glucose concentrations more frequently.

    Burns, fever, infection, sepsis, trauma

    To reduce the risk of lactic acidosis, dapagliflozin; metformin should be promptly withheld in the presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia, dehydration, or sepsis. Temporary use of insulin in place of oral antidiabetic agents may be necessary during periods of physiologic stress (e.g., burns, systemic infection, trauma, surgery, or fever). Temporarily suspend therapy for restricted food or fluid intake and consider monitoring for ketoacidosis (e.g., prolonged fasting due to acute illness or surgical procedure). Any change in clinical status, including diarrhea or vomiting, may also increase the risk of lactic acidosis and may require laboratory evaluation and may require the product to be withheld.

    Adrenal insufficiency, gastroparesis, GI obstruction, hypercortisolism, hyperglycemia, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, ileus, malnutrition, pituitary insufficiency

    Delayed stomach emptying may alter blood glucose control; monitor patients with diarrhea, gastroparesis, GI obstruction, ileus, or vomiting carefully. Conditions that predispose patients to developing hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia may alter antidiabetic agent efficacy. Conditions associated with hypoglycemia include debilitated physical condition, drug interactions, malnutrition, uncontrolled adrenal insufficiency, pituitary insufficiency or hypothyroidism. Hyperglycemia related conditions include drug interactions, female hormonal changes, high fever, severe psychological stress, and uncontrolled hypercortisolism or hyperthyroidism. More frequent blood glucose monitoring may be necessary in patients with these conditions while receiving dapagliflozin; metformin. Insulin and insulin secretagogues are also known to cause hypoglycemia. Dapagliflozin can increase the risk of hypoglycemia when combined with insulin or an insulin secretagogue. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with dapagliflozin; metformin.

    Pernicious anemia

    Metformin may result in suboptimal vitamin B12 absorption, possibly due to interference with the B12-intrinsic factor complex. The interaction very rarely results in a pernicious anemia that appears reversible with discontinuation of metformin or with cyanocobalamin supplementation. Certain individuals may be predisposed to this type of anemia; a nested case-control study of 465 patients taking metformin (155 with vitamin B12 deficiency and 310 without) demonstrated that dose and duration of metformin use may be associated with an increased odds of vitamin B12 deficiency. Each 1 gram/day increment in dose significantly increased the odds of vitamin B12 deficiency (OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.15 to 3.87) as did taking metformin for 3 years or more (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.91). Regular measurement of hematologic parameters is recommended in all patients on chronic dapagliflozin; metformin treatment. For those patients with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption who appear to be predisposed to subnormal vitamin B12 concentrations, monitoring of serum vitamin B12 concentrations are recommended every 2 to 3 years.

    Radiographic contrast administration

    Administration of intravascular iodinated radiographic contrast in patients taking metformin has led to an acute decrease in renal function and an increased risk for lactic acidosis. Discontinue dapagliflozin; metformin at the time of or before iodinated radiographic contrast administration in patients with a history of hepatic disease, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 48 hours after the imaging procedure; restart dapagliflozin; metformin if renal function is stable.

    Geriatric

    Use dapagliflozin; metformin with caution in geriatric patients. In particular, treatment of the geriatric patient should be accompanied by careful monitoring of renal function and volume status. An estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) should be obtained before initiation of dapagliflozin; metformin. Metformin treatment should not be initiated in a geriatric patient unless assessment of renal function determines that renal function is normal or only mild impairment is present. Before initiating dapagliflozin; metformin, also assess serum potassium, and volume status, and correct hypovolemia. The risk of lactic acidosis from metformin increases with the degree of renal dysfunction and the patient's age. Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney and the risk of adverse reactions is greater in geriatric patients with reduced renal function. Geriatric patients receiving dapagliflozin also experienced a higher incidence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume (e.g., hypotension, postural dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, and dehydration) compared to younger adults. Geriatric patients may also have an increased risk for hyperkalemia. Extra care should be taken with dose selection and titration. Assess renal function at least annually once therapy is initiated; geriatric patients should have renal function assessed more frequently. Dapagliflozin; metformin should be discontinued if evidence of moderate to severe renal impairment is present. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, the use of antidiabetic medications should include monitoring (e.g., periodic blood glucose) for effectiveness based on desired goals for that individual and to identify complications of treatment such as hypoglycemia or impaired renal function. Metformin has been associated with lactic acidosis, which is more likely to occur under the following conditions: serum creatinine of 1.5 mg/dL or higher in males or 1.4 mg/dL or higher in females, abnormal creatinine clearance from any cause, age of 80 years or older unless measurement of creatinine clearance verifies normal renal function, radiologic studies in which intravascular iodinated contrast materials are given, congestive heart failure requiring pharmacologic management, or acute/chronic metabolic acidosis with or without coma (including diabetic ketoacidosis).

    Polycystic ovary syndrome, pregnancy

    There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of dapagliflozin; metformin during human pregnancy to determine a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. However, based on animal data showing adverse renal effects with dapagliflozin, the use of dapagliflozin; metformin is not recommended during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.[58334] When dapagliflozin was administered to juvenile rats during periods of animal development that correspond to the late second and third trimester of human development, increased incidence and/or severity of renal pelvic and tubular dilatations that were not fully reversible were evident at the lowest tested dose which was approximately 15 times human clinical exposure from a 10 mg dose. When dapagliflozin was studied in rabbits during intervals coinciding with the first trimester period of organogenesis in humans, no developmental toxicities were observed at any dose tested.[58334] Based on the results of a small study, it appears that metformin does pass through the placenta and the fetus is exposed to therapeutic concentrations of metformin.[31404] Metformin has been studied as monotherapy during human pregnancy.[31404] [46193] [26677] [46201] [46203] The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) continue to recommend human insulin as the standard of care in women with diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requiring medical therapy. [62358] Per ACOG, in women who decline insulin therapy or are unable to safely administer insulin, metformin is the preferred second-line choice. Per the ADA, metformin monotherapy may be used to treat GDM as a treatment option; however, no long term safety data are available for any oral agent. Metformin may cause a lower risk of neonatal hypoglycemia and less maternal weight gain than insulin; however, some data suggest that metformin may slightly increase the risk of prematurity. The ADA notes that in some clinical studies, nearly 50% of GDM patients initially treated with metformin have needed the addition of insulin in order to achieve acceptable glucose control. [62358] Premenopausal anovulatory females with insulin resistance (i.e., those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)) may resume ovulation as a result of metformin therapy and may be at risk of conception if adequate contraception is not used.[42485]

    Breast-feeding

    Due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in a nursing infant from dapagliflozin, breast-feeding during use of the combination of dapagliflozin; metformin is not recommended. There is no information regarding the presence of dapagliflozin; metformin in human milk, the effects on breast-feeding infants, or the effects on milk production. Since dapagliflozin is present in the milk of lactating rats and human kidney maturation occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of life when lactational exposure may occur, there may be risk to the developing human kidney. Some publications have suggested that metformin monotherapy may be an option. Small studies indicate that metformin is excreted in human breast milk. Infant hypoglycemia or other side effects are a possibility; however, adverse effects on infant plasma glucose have not been reported in human studies. Furthermore, the use of metformin 2,550 mg/day by mothers breast-feeding for 6 months does not affect growth, motor, or social development in the infant; the effects beyond 6 months are not known. In all of these studies, the estimated weight-adjusted infant exposure to metformin ranged from 0.11% to 1.08% of the mother's dose. While the manufacturers of metformin recommend that a decision should be made to discontinue breast-feeding or discontinue the drug, the results of these studies indicate that maternal ingestion of metformin during breast-feeding is probably safe to the infant. If patients elect to continue metformin monotherapy while breast-feeding, the mother should be aware of the potential risks to the infant. If metformin is discontinued and blood glucose is not controlled on diet and exercise alone, insulin therapy should be considered. Other oral hypoglycemics may be considered. Because acarbose has limited systemic absorption, which results in minimal maternal plasma concentrations, clinically significant exposure via breast milk is not expected.. Tolbutamide is usually considered compatible with breast-feeding. Glyburide may be a suitable alternative since it was not detected in the breast milk of lactating women who received single and multiple doses of glyburide. If any oral hypoglycemics are used during breast feeding, the nursing infant should be monitored for signs of hypoglycemia, such as increased fussiness or somnolence.

    Children, infants

    The safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin; metformin have not been established in adolescents and children less than 18 years of age. Use of dapagliflozin in infants is not indicated due to the potential harm to the developing human kidneys.[58334]

    Laboratory test interference

    Monitoring of glycemic control with urine glucose tests and the 1,5 Anhydroglucitol assay (1,5-AG assay) is not recommended in patients receiving dapagliflozin; metformin due to laboratory test interference from dapagliflozin. Use of urine glucose tests will result in positive urine glucose tests, and measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    renal failure / Delayed / 0-1.0
    megaloblastic anemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / 0.3-0.3
    angioedema / Rapid / 0.3-0.3
    lactic acidosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    bone fractures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    diabetic ketoacidosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tissue necrosis / Early / Incidence not known
    necrotizing fasciitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    rhabdomyolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    vaginitis / Delayed / 9.3-9.4
    candidiasis / Delayed / 3.6-9.4
    vitamin B12 deficiency / Delayed / 7.0-7.0
    cystitis / Delayed / 5.5-6.1
    prostatitis / Delayed / 5.5-6.1
    palpitations / Early / 1.0-5.0
    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / 1.0-5.0
    balanitis / Delayed / 3.6-4.3
    constipation / Delayed / 1.9-2.9
    hypercholesterolemia / Delayed / 2.1-2.5
    hyperlipidemia / Delayed / 0-2.5
    hyperphosphatemia / Delayed / 1.7-1.7
    hypoglycemia / Early / 0.7-1.5
    hypovolemia / Early / 0.6-1.1
    metabolic acidosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    orthostatic hypotension / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dehydration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypotension / Rapid / Incidence not known
    folate deficiency / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cholestasis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    vomiting / Early / 6.5-25.5
    flatulence / Early / 1.0-12.1
    infection / Delayed / 1.0-9.4
    dyspepsia / Early / 1.0-7.1
    abdominal pain / Early / 1.0-6.4
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 5.2-6.3
    diarrhea / Early / 4.2-5.9
    headache / Early / 3.3-5.4
    myalgia / Early / 1.0-5.0
    malaise / Early / 1.0-5.0
    flushing / Rapid / 1.0-5.0
    hyperhidrosis / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    anorexia / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    metallic taste / Early / 1.0-5.0
    dysgeusia / Early / 1.0-5.0
    chills / Rapid / 1.0-5.0
    influenza / Delayed / 2.6-4.1
    nausea / Early / 2.6-3.9
    back pain / Delayed / 2.5-3.4
    dizziness / Early / 1.8-3.2
    cough / Delayed / 1.4-3.2
    increased urinary frequency / Early / 2.4-2.6
    polyuria / Early / 2.4-2.6
    urticaria / Rapid / 0-1.0
    diuresis / Early / 10.0
    rash / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abacavir; Dolutegravir; Lamivudine: (Major) If these drugs are used in combination, the total daily dose of metformin must not exceed 1,000 mg/day. Dolutegravir may increase exposure to metformin. Increased exposure to metformin may increase the risk for hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal side effects, and potentially increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use of dolutegravir with metformin. Close monitoring of blood glucose and patient clinical status (gastrointestinal side effects, renal function, electrolytes and acid-base balance) is recommended. When stopping dolutegravir, the metformin dose may need to be adjusted. In drug interaction studies, dolutegravir increased both the Cmax and AUC of metformin when metformin 500 mg PO twice daily was coadministered. Dolutegravir inhibits common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2]/multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE1 and MATE2k]). (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as lamivudine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems.
    Abacavir; Lamivudine, 3TC: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as lamivudine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems.
    Abacavir; Lamivudine, 3TC; Zidovudine, ZDV: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as lamivudine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems.
    Acalabrutinib: (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant therapy of acalabrutinib with metformin. Concomitant use o fmedications that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., MATE inhibitors) could increase systemic exposure to metformin and increase the risk for lactic acidosis. The active metabolite of acalabrutinib (ACP-5862) inhibits MATE1 in vitro and may have the potential to increase concentrations of coadministered substrates of these transporters.
    Acebutolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Acetazolamide: (Moderate) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of acetazolamide with metformin may increase the risk for lactic acidosis; consider more frequent monitoring. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may also alter blood sugar; both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction. (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Acetohexamide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Adefovir: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion (e.g., adefovir) may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Amphetamine: (Moderate) Monitor for loss of glycemic control when amphetamines are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Sympathomimetic agents, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Monitor for loss of glycemic control when amphetamines are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Sympathomimetic agents, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells.
    Amphetamines: (Moderate) Monitor for loss of glycemic control when amphetamines are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Sympathomimetic agents, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells.
    Androgens: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of metformin and cobicistat may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cobicistat is a potent inhibitor of the human multidrug and toxic extrusion 1 (MATE1) on proximal renal tubular cells; metformin is a MATE1 substrate. Inhibition of MATE1 by cobicistat may decrease metformin eliminiation by blocking renal tubular secretion. If these drugs are given together, closely monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed. (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    atypical antipsychotic: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and metformin use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant atypical antipsychotic and SGLT2 inhibitor use. Atypical antipsychotic therapy may aggravate diabetes mellitus. Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic states, and diabetic coma. Possible mechanisms include atypical antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance or direct beta-cell inhibition.
    Azilsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Benazepril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) Monitor for loss of glycemic control when amphetamines are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Sympathomimetic agents, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells.
    Beta-blockers: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Bictegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering bictegravir with metformin, as coadministration may increase exposure to metformin and increase the risk for hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal side effects, and potentially increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Close monitoring of blood glucose and patient clinical status is recommended. In drug interaction studies, bictegravir increased both the Cmax and AUC of metformin at a metformin dose of 500 mg PO twice daily. Bictegravir inhibits common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2]/multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE1]).
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Bortezomib: (Moderate) During clinical trials of bortezomib, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Patients taking antidiabetic agents and receiving bortezomib treatment may require close monitoring of their blood glucose levels and dosage adjustment of their medication.
    Brigatinib: (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant therapy of brigatinib with metformin. Concomitant use of drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., MATE inhibitors) could increase systemic exposure to metformin and increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Brigatinib inhibits MATE1 and MATE2K in vitro and may have the potential to increase concentrations of coadministered substrates of these transporters.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Coadministration of glycopyrrolate with metformin my increase metformin plasma concentrations, which may lead to increased metformin effects and possible adverse events. If coadministration is necessary, monitor clinical response to metformin and adjust metformin dose accordingly.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) Loop diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. Patients receiving dapagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. (Minor) Bumetanide has been associated with hyperglycemia, possibly due to potassium depletion, and, glycosuria has been reported. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between bumetanide and all antidiabetic agents. This interference can lead to a loss of diabetic control, so diabetic patients should be monitored closely.
    Calcium Carbonate; Famotidine; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Minor) Famotidine may decrease the renal clearance of metformin secondary to competition for renal tubular transport systems. Such an interaction has been observed when cimetidine was administered with metformin. The decrease in renal excretion led to a 40% increase in metformin AUC. Although interactions with cationic drugs remain theoretical (except for cimetidine), caution is warranted when famotidine and metformin are prescribed concurrently. Famotidine may be less likely to interact with metformin versus cimetidine or ranitidine because of less tubular excretion.
    Candesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Capmatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increased risk of metformin-related adverse reactions including lactic acidosis if coadministration with capmatinib is necessary; consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use. Metformin is a substrate of multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) and capmatinib is a MATE1 and MATE2K inhibitor. Coadministration may interfere with the renal elimination of metformin and increase metformin exposure.
    Captopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Cephalexin: (Moderate) Monitor for metformin-related adverse reactions during concomitant cephalexin use; a metformin dosage adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use results in increased serum metformin concentrations and decreased renal clearance of metformin. In healthy subjects given single cephalexin 500 mg doses and metformin, serum metformin mean Cmax and AUC increased by an average of 34% and 24%, respectively, and metformin mean renal clearance decreased by 14%.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chloroquine: (Major) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when chloroquine and antidiabetic agents, including metformin, are coadministered. A decreased dose of the antidiabetic agent may be necessary as severe hypoglycemia has been reported in patients treated concomitantly with chloroquine and an antidiabetic agent. (Major) Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when chloroquine and antidiabetic agents, including the SGLT2 inhibitors, are coadministered. A decreased dose of the antidiabetic agent may be necessary as severe hypoglycemia has been reported in patients treated concomitantly with chloroquine and an antidiabetic agent.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Chlorpropamide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. (Minor) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when clonidine is given with antidiabetic agents. Since clonidine inhibits the release of catecholamines, clonidine may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Clonidine does not appear to impair recovery from hypoglycemia, and has not been found to impair glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Chromium: (Moderate) Chromium dietary supplements may lower blood glucose. As part of the glucose tolerance factor molecule, chromium appears to facilitate the binding of insulin to insulin receptors in tissues and to aid in glucose metabolism. Because blood glucose may be lowered by the use of chromium, patients who are on antidiabetic agents may need dose adjustments. Close monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Cimetidine: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of metformin and cimetidine may increase metformin exposure and increase the risk for lactic acidosis. If these drugs are given together, monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed. After administration of single doses of cimetidine 400 mg and metformin 850 mg, mean metformin exposure increased by 40%. Metformin is an OCT2 substrate; cimetidine is an OCT2 inhibitor that may decrease metformin elimination by blocking renal tubular secretion.
    Cisapride: (Moderate) Because cisapride can enhance gastric emptying in diabetic patients, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and adjust if cliniically indicated.
    Clarithromycin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Clofarabine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of clofarabine and metformin may result in altered clofarabine levels because both agents are a substrate of OCT1. Therefore, monitor for signs of clofarabine toxicity such as gastrointestinal toxicity (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucosal inflammation), hematologic toxicity, and skin toxicity (e.g. hand and foot syndrome, rash, pruritus) in patients also receiving OCT1 substrates.
    Clonidine: (Minor) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when clonidine is given with antidiabetic agents. Since clonidine inhibits the release of catecholamines, clonidine may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Clonidine does not appear to impair recovery from hypoglycemia, and has not been found to impair glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.
    Cobicistat: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of metformin and cobicistat may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cobicistat is a potent inhibitor of the human multidrug and toxic extrusion 1 (MATE1) on proximal renal tubular cells; metformin is a MATE1 substrate. Inhibition of MATE1 by cobicistat may decrease metformin eliminiation by blocking renal tubular secretion. If these drugs are given together, closely monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Colesevelam: (Moderate) The clinical response to metformin extended-release (metformin ER) should be monitored in patients receiving concomitant therapy with colesevelam. Be alert for changes in glycemic control, increased metformin side effects, such as gastrointestinal disturbances and a risk for lactic acidosis. Colesevelam increases the Cmax and AUC of metformin ER by approximately 8% and 44%, respectively. The mechanism of the interaction is not known. Colesevelam has no significant effect on the bioavailability of immediate-release metformin.
    Conjugated Estrogens: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Bazedoxifene: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Conjugated Estrogens; Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Corticosteroids: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and metformin use; a metformin dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant corticosteroid and SGLT2 inhibitor use; a SGLT2 inhibitor dose adjustment may be necessary. Corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance due to corticosteroids include the corticosteroid dose and duration of treatment. Corticosteroids stimulate hepatic glucose production and inhibit peripheral glucose uptake into muscle and fatty tissues, producing insulin resistance. Decreased insulin production may occur in the pancreas due to a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells.
    Cyanocobalamin, Vitamin B12: (Minor) Metformin may result in suboptimal oral vitamin B12 absorption by competitively blocking the calcium-dependent binding of the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex to its receptor. Regular measurement of hematologic parameters is recommended in all patients on chronic metformin treatment; abnormalities should be investigated.
    Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Patients should be monitored for worsening glycemic control if therapy with cyclosporine is initiated in patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Cyclosporine has been reported to cause hyperglycemia or exacerbate diabetes mellitus; this effect appears to be dose-related and caused by direct beta-cell toxicity. Also, any drug that deteriorates the renal status of the patient is likely to alter metformin concentrations in the body, so renal function should be carefully monitored during the use of cyclosporine and metformin together.
    Daclatasvir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if daclatasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as daclatasvir.
    Danazol: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Darunavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of metformin and cobicistat may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cobicistat is a potent inhibitor of the human multidrug and toxic extrusion 1 (MATE1) on proximal renal tubular cells; metformin is a MATE1 substrate. Inhibition of MATE1 by cobicistat may decrease metformin eliminiation by blocking renal tubular secretion. If these drugs are given together, closely monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed. (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of metformin and cobicistat may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cobicistat is a potent inhibitor of the human multidrug and toxic extrusion 1 (MATE1) on proximal renal tubular cells; metformin is a MATE1 substrate. Inhibition of MATE1 by cobicistat may decrease metformin eliminiation by blocking renal tubular secretion. If these drugs are given together, closely monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed. (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir : (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) While no dosage adjustment of metformin is recommended in patients with normal hepatic or renal function, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the potentially interfering drug is recommended with concurrent use. Monitor for signs of onset of lactic acidosis such as respiratory distress, somnolence, and non-specific abdominal distress or worsening renal function. Do not use metformin with paritaprevir in patients with renal insufficiency or hepatic impairment. Drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Paritaprevir is an inhibitor of the organic anion transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. While initial drug-drug interaction studies of paritaprevir-containing hepatitis treatments have not noted an effect on metformin concentrations, more study is needed. (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Desogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Monitor for loss of glycemic control when amphetamines are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Sympathomimetic agents, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Diazoxide: (Minor) Diazoxide, when administered intravenously or orally, produces a prompt dose-related increase in blood glucose level, due primarily to an inhibition of insulin release from the pancreas, and also to an extrapancreatic effect. The hyperglycemic effect begins within an hour and generally lasts no more than 8 hours in the presence of normal renal function. The hyperglycemic effect of diazoxide is expected to be antagonized by certain antidiabetic agents (e.g., insulin or a sulfonylurea). Blood glucose should be closely monitored.
    Dichlorphenamide: (Moderate) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as dichlorphenamide frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of dichlorphenamide with metformin may increase the risk for lactic acidosis; consider more frequent monitoring. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may also alter blood sugar; both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Dienogest; Estradiol valerate: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Diethylstilbestrol, DES: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Digoxin: (Moderate) Metformin may increase digoxin concentrations, but the magnitude is unclear. Measure serum digoxin concentrations before initiating metformin, and periodically after that. Monitor heart rate and other clinical parameters. Adjust digoxin dose as necessary.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Disopyramide: (Moderate) Disopyramide may enhance the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents. Patients receiving disopyramide concomitantly with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Dofetilide: (Major) Dofetilide should be co-administered with metformin with caution since both drugs are actively secreted via cationic secretion and could compete for common renal tubular transport systems. This results in a possible increase in plasma concentrations of either drug. Reduced clearance of metformin may increase the risk for lactic acidosis; increased concentrations of dofetilide may increase the risk for side effects including proarrhythmia. Careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and dofetilide is recommended.
    Dolutegravir: (Major) If these drugs are used in combination, the total daily dose of metformin must not exceed 1,000 mg/day. Dolutegravir may increase exposure to metformin. Increased exposure to metformin may increase the risk for hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal side effects, and potentially increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use of dolutegravir with metformin. Close monitoring of blood glucose and patient clinical status (gastrointestinal side effects, renal function, electrolytes and acid-base balance) is recommended. When stopping dolutegravir, the metformin dose may need to be adjusted. In drug interaction studies, dolutegravir increased both the Cmax and AUC of metformin when metformin 500 mg PO twice daily was coadministered. Dolutegravir inhibits common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2]/multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE1 and MATE2k]).
    Dolutegravir; Lamivudine: (Major) If these drugs are used in combination, the total daily dose of metformin must not exceed 1,000 mg/day. Dolutegravir may increase exposure to metformin. Increased exposure to metformin may increase the risk for hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal side effects, and potentially increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use of dolutegravir with metformin. Close monitoring of blood glucose and patient clinical status (gastrointestinal side effects, renal function, electrolytes and acid-base balance) is recommended. When stopping dolutegravir, the metformin dose may need to be adjusted. In drug interaction studies, dolutegravir increased both the Cmax and AUC of metformin when metformin 500 mg PO twice daily was coadministered. Dolutegravir inhibits common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2]/multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE1 and MATE2k]). (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as lamivudine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems.
    Dolutegravir; Rilpivirine: (Major) If these drugs are used in combination, the total daily dose of metformin must not exceed 1,000 mg/day. Dolutegravir may increase exposure to metformin. Increased exposure to metformin may increase the risk for hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal side effects, and potentially increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use of dolutegravir with metformin. Close monitoring of blood glucose and patient clinical status (gastrointestinal side effects, renal function, electrolytes and acid-base balance) is recommended. When stopping dolutegravir, the metformin dose may need to be adjusted. In drug interaction studies, dolutegravir increased both the Cmax and AUC of metformin when metformin 500 mg PO twice daily was coadministered. Dolutegravir inhibits common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2]/multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE1 and MATE2k]).
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion (e.g., memantine) may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. It should be noted that in a pharmacokinetic study in which memantine and glyburide; metformin (Glucovance) were coadministered, the pharmacokinetics of memantine, metformin, or glyburide were not altered. Regardless, careful patient monitoring is recommended.
    Doravirine; Lamivudine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as lamivudine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Drospirenone: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Drospirenone; Estetrol: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Levomefolate and metformin should be used together cautiously. Plasma concentrations of levomefolate may be reduced during treatment of type 2 diabetes with metformin. Monitor patients for decreased efficacy of levomefolate if these agents are used together. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as lamivudine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems.
    Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if elbasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as elbasvir.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of metformin and cobicistat may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cobicistat is a potent inhibitor of the human multidrug and toxic extrusion 1 (MATE1) on proximal renal tubular cells; metformin is a MATE1 substrate. Inhibition of MATE1 by cobicistat may decrease metformin eliminiation by blocking renal tubular secretion. If these drugs are given together, closely monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of metformin and cobicistat may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cobicistat is a potent inhibitor of the human multidrug and toxic extrusion 1 (MATE1) on proximal renal tubular cells; metformin is a MATE1 substrate. Inhibition of MATE1 by cobicistat may decrease metformin eliminiation by blocking renal tubular secretion. If these drugs are given together, closely monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed.
    Enalapril, Enalaprilat: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Entecavir: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion (e.g., entecavir) may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Ephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Ephedrine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Eprosartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Erdafitinib: (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant treatment with metformin and erdafitinib. Metformin is a substrate of organic cationic transporter-2 (OCT2). Erdafitinib is an OCT2 inhibitor. Coadministration with OCT2 inhibitors could increase systemic exposure to metformin and increase the risk for lactic acidosis.
    Esmolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Esterified Estrogens: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Esterified Estrogens; Methyltestosterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Estradiol: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Estradiol; Progesterone: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Estramustine: (Minor) Estramustine should be used cautiously in patients receiving metformin. Patients should routinely monitor their blood glucose as indicated. Estramustine may decrease glucose tolerance leading to hyperglycemia.
    Estrogens: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Estropipate: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) Loop diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. Patients receiving dapagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. (Moderate) Loop diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations.Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Ethanol: (Major) Patients taking metformin should be advised to avoid alcohol use. Blood lactate concentrations and the lactate to pyruvate ratio are increased during excessive (acute or chronic) intake of alcohol with metformin.
    Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Levomefolate and metformin should be used together cautiously. Plasma concentrations of levomefolate may be reduced during treatment of type 2 diabetes with metformin. Monitor patients for decreased efficacy of levomefolate if these agents are used together. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Ethotoin: (Minor) Ethotoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Minor) Phenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Ethynodiol Diacetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Etonogestrel: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Etonogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Famotidine: (Minor) Famotidine may decrease the renal clearance of metformin secondary to competition for renal tubular transport systems. Such an interaction has been observed when cimetidine was administered with metformin. The decrease in renal excretion led to a 40% increase in metformin AUC. Although interactions with cationic drugs remain theoretical (except for cimetidine), caution is warranted when famotidine and metformin are prescribed concurrently. Famotidine may be less likely to interact with metformin versus cimetidine or ranitidine because of less tubular excretion.
    Fedratinib: (Moderate) Concurrent use of metformin and fedratinib may produce unpredictable effects. Concomitant administration may increase the risk for metformin adverse events (e.g., lactic acidosis) or reduce metformin's efficacy. If these drugs are given together, monitor for metformin toxicity and efficacy; metformin dose adjustments may be needed. Fedratinib inhibits the common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., OCT2/MATE1 and MATE2). In a drug interaction study, fedratinib was observed to have no clinically meaningful effect on metformin overall exposure; however, the renal clearance of metformin was decreased by 36% and the glucose lowering effect of metformin appeared to be reduced. The baseline adjusted glucose exposure was about 50% higher in response to an oral glucose challenge when these drugs were administered together.
    Fenofibrate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and fibric acid derivative use; a metformin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Fenofibric Acid: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and fibric acid derivative use; a metformin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Fibric acid derivatives: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and fibric acid derivative use; a metformin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and fibric acid derivative use; a SGLT2 inhibitor dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and fluoxetine use; a metformin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and fluoxetine use; a SGLT2 inhibitor dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Fluoxymesterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Fosamprenavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Fosinopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Fosphenytoin: (Minor) Fosphenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Minor) Phenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Furosemide: (Moderate) Loop diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. Patients receiving dapagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. (Minor) Furosemide may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes mellitus, probably due to diuretic-induced hypokalemia.
    Garlic, Allium sativum: (Moderate) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should use dietary supplements of Garlic, Allium sativum with caution. Constituents in garlic might have some antidiabetic activity, and may increase serum insulin levels and increase glycogen storage in the liver. Monitor blood glucose and glycemic control. Patients with diabetes should inform their health care professionals of their intent to ingest garlic dietary supplements. Some patients may require adjustment to their hypoglycemic medications over time. One study stated that additional garlic supplementation (0.05 to 1.5 grams PO per day) contributed to improved blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus within 1 to 2 weeks, and had positive effects on total cholesterol and high/low density lipoprotein regulation over time. It is unclear if hemoglobin A1C is improved or if improvements are sustained with continued treatment beyond 24 weeks. Other reviews suggest that garlic may provide modest improvements in blood lipids, but few studies demonstrate decreases in blood glucose in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. More controlled trials are needed to discern if garlic has an effect on blood glucose in patients with diabetes. When garlic is used in foods or as a seasoning, or at doses of 50 mg/day or less, it is unlikely that blood glucose levels are affected to any clinically significant degree.
    Gemfibrozil: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and fibric acid derivative use; a metformin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Glecaprevir; Pibrentasvir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if glecaprevir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as glecaprevir. (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if pibrentasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as pibrentasvir.
    Glimepiride: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Glipizide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Glyburide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Coadministration of glycopyrrolate with metformin my increase metformin plasma concentrations, which may lead to increased metformin effects and possible adverse events. If coadministration is necessary, monitor clinical response to metformin and adjust metformin dose accordingly.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Coadministration of glycopyrrolate with metformin my increase metformin plasma concentrations, which may lead to increased metformin effects and possible adverse events. If coadministration is necessary, monitor clinical response to metformin and adjust metformin dose accordingly.
    Green Tea: (Moderate) Green tea catechins have been shown to decrease serum glucose concentrations in vitro. Patients with diabetes mellitus taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored closely for hypoglycemia if consuming green tea products. (Moderate) Green tea catechins have been shown to decrease serum glucose concentrations in vitro. Patients with diabetes mellitus taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored closely for hypoglycemia if consuming green tea products.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydantoins: (Minor) Phenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Hydroxychloroquine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and hydroxychloroquine use; a metformin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and hydroxychloroquine use; a SGLT2 inhibitor dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Hydroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Progestins, like hydroxyprogesterone, can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Ibuprofen; Famotidine: (Minor) Famotidine may decrease the renal clearance of metformin secondary to competition for renal tubular transport systems. Such an interaction has been observed when cimetidine was administered with metformin. The decrease in renal excretion led to a 40% increase in metformin AUC. Although interactions with cationic drugs remain theoretical (except for cimetidine), caution is warranted when famotidine and metformin are prescribed concurrently. Famotidine may be less likely to interact with metformin versus cimetidine or ranitidine because of less tubular excretion.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Coadministration of glycopyrrolate with metformin my increase metformin plasma concentrations, which may lead to increased metformin effects and possible adverse events. If coadministration is necessary, monitor clinical response to metformin and adjust metformin dose accordingly.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) A potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between indapamide and antidiabetic agents, like metformin. Indapamide can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia.
    Indinavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Insulin Aspart: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulin Aspart; Insulin Aspart Protamine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulin Degludec: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulin Degludec; Liraglutide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulin Detemir: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulin Glargine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulin Glulisine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulin Lispro: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulin Lispro; Insulin Lispro Protamine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulin, Inhaled: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Insulins: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Iodipamide Meglumine: (Contraindicated) Metformin and combination products containing metformin should be temporarily discontinued prior to the administration of iodinated contrast media. Metformin should be held for at least 48 hours after contrast administration and not restarted until renal function returns to normal post-procedure. Lactic acidosis has been reported in patients taking metformin that experience nephrotoxicity after use of iodinated contrast media.
    Ionic Contrast Media: (Contraindicated) Metformin and combination products containing metformin should be temporarily discontinued prior to the administration of iodinated contrast media. Metformin should be held for at least 48 hours after contrast administration and not restarted until renal function returns to normal post-procedure. Lactic acidosis has been reported in patients taking metformin that experience nephrotoxicity after use of iodinated contrast media.
    Ioxaglate Meglumine; Ioxaglate Sodium: (Contraindicated) Metformin and combination products containing metformin should be temporarily discontinued prior to the administration of iodinated contrast media. Metformin should be held for at least 48 hours after contrast administration and not restarted until renal function returns to normal post-procedure. Lactic acidosis has been reported in patients taking metformin that experience nephrotoxicity after use of iodinated contrast media.
    Irbesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Irbesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Isocarboxazid: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) use; a dapagliflozin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Isophane Insulin (NPH): (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Ketoconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of metformin and ketoconazole may increase metformin exposure and increase the risk for lactic acidosis. If these drugs are given together, monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed. Metformin is a human multidrug and toxic extrusion (MATE) and OCT2 substrate and ketoconazole is a MATE and OCT2 inhibitor. MATE and OCT2 inhibitors may decrease metformin elimination by blocking renal tubular secretion.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Lamivudine, 3TC: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as lamivudine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems.
    Lamivudine, 3TC; Zidovudine, ZDV: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as lamivudine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems.
    Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as lamivudine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems.
    Lamotrigine: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of metformin and lamotrigine may increase metformin exposure and increase the risk for lactic acidosis. If these drugs are given together, monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed. Metformin is an OCT2 substrate; lamotrigine is an OCT2 inhibitor that may decrease metformin elimination by blocking renal tubular secretion.
    Lanreotide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when lanreotide treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Lanreotide inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. Patients treated with lanreotide may experience either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
    Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Ledipasvir; Sofosbuvir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if ledipasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agent(s) may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as ledipasvir. (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if sofosbuvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as sofosbuvir.
    Lente Insulin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Leuprolide; Norethindrone: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Levoketoconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of metformin and ketoconazole may increase metformin exposure and increase the risk for lactic acidosis. If these drugs are given together, monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed. Metformin is a human multidrug and toxic extrusion (MATE) and OCT2 substrate and ketoconazole is a MATE and OCT2 inhibitor. MATE and OCT2 inhibitors may decrease metformin elimination by blocking renal tubular secretion.
    Levomefolate: (Minor) Levomefolate and metformin should be used together cautiously. Plasma concentrations of levomefolate may be reduced during treatment of type 2 diabetes with metformin. Monitor patients for decreased efficacy of levomefolate if these agents are used together.
    Levonorgestrel: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous Bisglycinate: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Levothyroxine: (Minor) Thyroid hormone use may result in increased blood sugar and a loss of glycemic control in some patients. Interactions may or may not be clinically significant at usual replacement doses. Monitor blood sugars carefully when thyroid therapy is added, changed, or discontinued in patients receiving metformin. (Minor) Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced. Close monitoring of blood glucose is necessary for individuals who use oral antidiabetic agents whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine): (Minor) Thyroid hormone use may result in increased blood sugar and a loss of glycemic control in some patients. Interactions may or may not be clinically significant at usual replacement doses. Monitor blood sugars carefully when thyroid therapy is added, changed, or discontinued in patients receiving metformin. (Minor) Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced. Close monitoring of blood glucose is necessary for individuals who use oral antidiabetic agents whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic): (Minor) Thyroid hormone use may result in increased blood sugar and a loss of glycemic control in some patients. Interactions may or may not be clinically significant at usual replacement doses. Monitor blood sugars carefully when thyroid therapy is added, changed, or discontinued in patients receiving metformin. (Minor) Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced. Close monitoring of blood glucose is necessary for individuals who use oral antidiabetic agents whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued
    Linezolid: (Moderate) Hypoglycemia, including symptomatic episodes, has been noted in post-marketing reports with linezolid in patients with diabetes mellitus receiving therapy with antidiabetic agents, such as insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Diabetic patients should be monitored for potential hypoglycemic reactions while on linezolid. If hypoglycemia occurs, discontinue or decrease the dose of the antidiabetic agent or discontinue the linezolid therapy. Linezolid is a reversible, nonselective MAO inhibitor and other MAO inhibitors have been associated with hypoglycemic episodes in diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents.
    Liothyronine: (Minor) Thyroid hormone use may result in increased blood sugar and a loss of glycemic control in some patients. Interactions may or may not be clinically significant at usual replacement doses. Monitor blood sugars carefully when thyroid therapy is added, changed, or discontinued in patients receiving metformin. (Minor) Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced. Close monitoring of blood glucose is necessary for individuals who use oral antidiabetic agents whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Moderate) Monitor for loss of glycemic control when amphetamines are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Sympathomimetic agents, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells.
    Lisinopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Lisinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors with lithium may decrease serum lithium concentrations. Monitor serum lithium concentration more frequently during SGLT2 inhibitor initiation and dosage changes.
    Lonapegsomatropin: (Moderate) Patients with diabetes mellitus should be monitored closely during somatropin (recombinant rhGH) therapy. Antidiabetic drugs (e.g., insulin or oral agents) may require adjustment when somatropin therapy is instituted in these patients. Growth hormones, such as somatropin, may decrease insulin sensitivity, leading to glucose intolerance and loss of blood glucose control. Therefore, glucose levels should be monitored periodically in all patients treated with somatropin, especially in those with risk factors for diabetes mellitus.
    Loop diuretics: (Moderate) Loop diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. Patients receiving dapagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Lorcaserin: (Moderate) In general, weight reduction may increase the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with antidiabetic agents, such as insulin and/or insulin secretagogues (e.g., sulfonylureas). In clinical trials, lorcaserin use was associated with reports of hypoglycemia. Blood glucose monitoring is warranted in patients with type 2 diabetes prior to starting and during lorcaserin treatment. Dosage adjustments of anti-diabetic medications should be considered. If a patient develops hypoglycemia during treatment, adjust anti-diabetic drug regimen accordingly. Of note, lorcaserin has not been studied in combination with insulin.
    Losartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Losartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Lovastatin; Niacin: (Moderate) Niacin (nicotinic acid) interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin (nicotinic acid) is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. (Moderate) Niacin interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Mafenide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and sulfonamide use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Mecasermin rinfabate: (Moderate) Use caution in combining mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1 or mecasermin rinfabate (rh-IGF-1/rh-IGFBP-3) with antidiabetic agents. Patients should be advised to eat within 20 minutes of mecasermin administration. Glucose monitoring is important when initializing or adjusting mecasermin therapies, when adjusting concomitant antidiabetic therapy, and in the event of hypoglycemic symptoms. An increased risk for hypoglycemia is possible. The hypoglycemic effect induced by IGF-1 activity may be exacerbated. The amino acid sequence of mecasermin (rh-IGF-1) is approximately 50 percent homologous to insulin and cross binding with either receptor is possible. Treatment with mecasermin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and to improve glycemic control in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus when used alone or in conjunction with insulins.
    Mecasermin, Recombinant, rh-IGF-1: (Moderate) Use caution in combining mecasermin, recombinant, rh-IGF-1 or mecasermin rinfabate (rh-IGF-1/rh-IGFBP-3) with antidiabetic agents. Patients should be advised to eat within 20 minutes of mecasermin administration. Glucose monitoring is important when initializing or adjusting mecasermin therapies, when adjusting concomitant antidiabetic therapy, and in the event of hypoglycemic symptoms. An increased risk for hypoglycemia is possible. The hypoglycemic effect induced by IGF-1 activity may be exacerbated. The amino acid sequence of mecasermin (rh-IGF-1) is approximately 50 percent homologous to insulin and cross binding with either receptor is possible. Treatment with mecasermin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and to improve glycemic control in patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus when used alone or in conjunction with insulins.
    Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Meglitinides: (Moderate) Use of metformin with a meglitinide ("glinide") may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Meglitinides are insulin secretagogues and are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of the meglitinide may be needed. Monitor blood sugar.
    Memantine: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion (e.g., memantine) may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. It should be noted that in a pharmacokinetic study in which memantine and glyburide; metformin (Glucovance) were coadministered, the pharmacokinetics of memantine, metformin, or glyburide were not altered. Regardless, careful patient monitoring is recommended.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Metformin; Repaglinide: (Moderate) Use of metformin with a meglitinide ("glinide") may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Meglitinides are insulin secretagogues and are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of the meglitinide may be needed. Monitor blood sugar.
    Methamphetamine: (Moderate) Monitor for loss of glycemic control when amphetamines are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Sympathomimetic agents, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells.
    Methazolamide: (Moderate) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as methazolamide frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of methazolamide with metformin may increase the risk for lactic acidosis; consider more frequent monitoring. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may also alter blood sugar; both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction. (Minor) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may alter blood sugar. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus who are receiving antidiabetic agents. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.
    Methenamine; Sodium Salicylate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Methyltestosterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Metyrapone: (Moderate) In patients taking insulin or other antidiabetic agents, the signs and symptoms of acute metyrapone toxicity (e.g., symptoms of acute adrenal insufficiency) may be aggravated or modified.
    Midodrine: (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, like midodrine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or midodrine is recommended.
    Moexipril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) use; a dapagliflozin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) use; a metformin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Nandrolone Decanoate: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Nateglinide: (Moderate) Use of metformin with a meglitinide ("glinide") may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Meglitinides are insulin secretagogues and are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of the meglitinide may be needed. Monitor blood sugar.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Nelfinavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Niacin, Niacinamide: (Moderate) Niacin (nicotinic acid) interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin (nicotinic acid) is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. (Moderate) Niacin interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Niacin; Simvastatin: (Moderate) Niacin (nicotinic acid) interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin (nicotinic acid) is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. (Moderate) Niacin interferes with glucose metabolism and can result in hyperglycemia. Changes in glycemic control can usually be corrected through modification of hypoglycemic therapy. Monitor patients taking antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control if niacin is added or deleted to the medication regimen. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Nicotine: (Minor) Blood glucose concentrations should be monitored more closely whenever a change in either nicotine intake or smoking status occurs; dosage adjustments of metformin may be needed. Nicotine may increase plasma glucose; tobacco smoking is known to aggravate insulin resistance. The cessation of nicotine therapy or tobacco smoking may result in a decrease in blood glucose. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose concentrations for needed antidiabetic agent dosage adjustments in diabetic patients whenever a change in either nicotine intake or smoking status occurs. Nicotine activates neuroendocrine pathways (e.g., increases in circulating cortisol and catecholamine concentrations) and may increase plasma glucose. The cessation of nicotine therapy or tobacco smoking may result in a decrease in blood glucose.
    Nifedipine: (Minor) Nifedipine may increase the plasma metformin Cmax and AUC and increase the amount of metformin excreted in the urine. Metformin half-life is unaffected. Nifedipine appears to enhance the absorption of metformin.
    Nirmatrelvir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Non-Ionic Contrast Media: (Major) Discontinue metformin at the time of, or before, administration of non-ionic contrast media to patients with an eGFR of 30 to 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2, history of liver disease, alcoholism, or heart failure, or who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Reevaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure; restart metformin if renal function is stable. Iodinated contrast agents appear to increase the risk of metformin-induced lactic acidosis, possibly as a result of worsening renal function.
    Norethindrone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Norethindrone: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Norgestimate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Norgestrel: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Monitor patients receiving octreotide concomitantly with insulin or other antidiabetic agents for changes in glycemic control and adjust doses of these medications accordingly. Octreotide alters the balance between the counter-regulatory hormones of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone, which may result in hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia which occurs during octreotide acetate therapy is usually mild but may result in overt diabetes mellitus or necessitate dose changes in insulin or other hypoglycemic agents. In patients with concomitant type1 diabetes mellitus, octreotide is likely to affect glucose regulation, and insulin requirements may be reduced. Symptomatic hypoglycemia, which may be severe, has been reported in type 1 diabetic patients. In Type 2 diabetes patients with partially intact insulin reserves, octreotide administration may result in decreases in plasma insulin levels and hyperglycemia.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and fluoxetine use; a metformin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and fluoxetine use; a SGLT2 inhibitor dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Olmesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) While no dosage adjustment of metformin is recommended in patients with normal hepatic or renal function, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the potentially interfering drug is recommended with concurrent use. Monitor for signs of onset of lactic acidosis such as respiratory distress, somnolence, and non-specific abdominal distress or worsening renal function. Do not use metformin with paritaprevir in patients with renal insufficiency or hepatic impairment. Drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Paritaprevir is an inhibitor of the organic anion transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. While initial drug-drug interaction studies of paritaprevir-containing hepatitis treatments have not noted an effect on metformin concentrations, more study is needed. (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Orlistat: (Minor) Weight-loss may affect glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. In many patients, glycemic control may improve. A reduction in dose of oral hypoglycemic medications may be required in some patients taking orlistat. Monitor blood glucose and glycemic control and adjust therapy as clinically indicated.
    Oxandrolone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Oxymetholone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Pasireotide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when pasireotide treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Pasireotide inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. Patients treated with pasireotide may experience either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
    Pegvisomant: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes, especially when pegvisomant treatment is initiated or when the dose is altered. Adjust treatment with antidiabetic agents as clinically indicated. Pegvisomant increases sensitivity to insulin by lowering the activity of growth hormone, and in some patients glucose tolerance improves with treatment. Patients with diabetes treated with pegvisomant and antidiabetic agents may be more likely to experience hypoglycemia.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Pentamidine: (Moderate) Pentamidine can be harmful to pancreatic cells. This effect may lead to hypoglycemia acutely, followed by hyperglycemia with prolonged pentamidine therapy. Patients on antidiabetic agents should be monitored for the need for dosage adjustments during the use of pentamidine.
    Pentoxifylline: (Moderate) Pentoxiphylline has been used concurrently with antidiabetic agents without observed problems, but it may enhance the hypoglycemic action of antidiabetic agents. Patients should be monitored for changes in glycemic control while receiving pentoxifylline in combination with antidiabetic agents.
    Perindopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Phenelzine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) use; a dapagliflozin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Phenothiazines: (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. Patients who are taking antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for worsening glycemic control when any of these antipsychotics is instituted. (Minor) Phenothiazines, especially chlorpromazine, may increase blood glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria have been reported. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving metformin, observe the patient closely for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving metformin, observe the patient closely for hypoglycemia.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Consider more frequent monitoring of patients receiving metformin and concomitant topiramate due to increased risk for lactic acidosis. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, such as topiramate, frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. In healthy volunteers, metformin Cmax and AUC increased by 17% and 25%, respectively, when topiramate was added, and oral plasma clearance of topiramate appears to be reduced when administered with metformin. The clinical significance of the effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin or topiramate are not known.
    Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Phenytoin: (Minor) Phenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Minor) Phenytoin and other hydantoins have the potential to increase blood glucose and thus interact with antidiabetic agents pharmacodynamically. Monitor blood glucose for changes in glycemic control. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Pioglitazone; Glimepiride: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (Dietary Supplements): (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (FDA-approved): (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Progesterone: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Progestins: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents and adrenergic agonists tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and other sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking antidiabetic agents. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Propantheline: (Moderate) Propantheline slows GI motility, which may increase the absorption of metformin from the small intestine. A 19% increase in metformin AUC has been reported in studies of this interaction in healthy volunteers. However, no serious side effects resulted.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Protease inhibitors: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated. (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. Another possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients taking antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when pseudoephedrine is administered to patients taking metformin. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Pyrimethamine; Sulfadoxine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and sulfonamide use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Quinapril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Quinapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Quinolones: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose carefully when systemic quinolones and antidiabetic agents, including metformin, are coadministered. Discontinue the quinolone if a hypoglycemic reaction occurs and initiate appropriate therapy immediately. Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with quinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Hypoglycemia, sometimes resulting in coma, can occur. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and quinolone use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Ramipril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Ranolazine: (Major) Limit the dose of metformin to 1,700 mg/day in adults if coadministered with ranolazine 1,000 mg twice daily. Coadministration of metformin with ranolazine 1,000 mg twice daily results in increased exposure to metformin. There is potential for an increased risk for lactic acidosis, which is associated with high metformin concentrations. Doses of metformin do not require reduction if coadministered with ranolazine 500 mg twice daily, as metformin exposure was not significantly increased with this lower dose of ranolazine. Ranolazine inhibits common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2]/multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE1 and MATE2k]). Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use of ranolazine with metformin. Monitor blood sugar and for gastrointestinal side effects, and increase monitoring for a risk for lactic acidosis, including renal function and electrolytes/acid-base balance.
    Regular Insulin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Regular Insulin; Isophane Insulin (NPH): (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Relugolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Repaglinide: (Moderate) Use of metformin with a meglitinide ("glinide") may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Meglitinides are insulin secretagogues and are known to cause hypoglycemia. To manage hypoglycemic risk, lower doses of the meglitinide may be needed. Monitor blood sugar.
    Reserpine: (Moderate) Reserpine may mask the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. Patients receiving reserpine concomitantly with antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in glycemic control. (Moderate) Reserpine may mask the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. Patients receiving these drugs concomitantly should be monitored for changes in glycemic control.
    Risdiplam: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of metformin and risdiplam may increase metformin exposure and increase the risk for lactic acidosis. If these drugs are given together, monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed. Metformin is a human multidrug and toxic extrusion 1 (MATE1) substrate and risdiplam is a an MATE1/2-K inhibitor. MATE inhibitors may decrease metformin elimination by blocking renal tubular secretion.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Sacubitril; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Salicylates: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Salsalate: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and salicylate use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Saquinavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance.
    Sofosbuvir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if sofosbuvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as sofosbuvir.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if sofosbuvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as sofosbuvir. (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if velpatasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as velpatasvir.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if sofosbuvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as sofosbuvir. (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if velpatasvir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as velpatasvir. (Moderate) Closely monitor blood glucose levels if voxilaprevir is administered with antidiabetic agents. Dose adjustments of the antidiabetic agents may be needed. Altered blood glucose control, resulting in serious symptomatic hypoglycemia, has been reported in diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic agents in combination with direct acting antivirals, such as voxilaprevir.
    Somatropin, rh-GH: (Moderate) Patients with diabetes mellitus should be monitored closely during somatropin (recombinant rhGH) therapy. Antidiabetic drugs (e.g., insulin or oral agents) may require adjustment when somatropin therapy is instituted in these patients. Growth hormones, such as somatropin, may decrease insulin sensitivity, leading to glucose intolerance and loss of blood glucose control. Therefore, glucose levels should be monitored periodically in all patients treated with somatropin, especially in those with risk factors for diabetes mellitus.
    Sotalol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Spironolactone; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Sulfadiazine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and sulfonamide use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and sulfonamide use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Sulfasalazine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and sulfonamide use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Sulfonamides: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and sulfonamide use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and sulfonamide use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Sulfonylureas: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Sympathomimetics: (Moderate) Sympathomimetic agents tend to increase blood glucose concentrations when administered systemically. Monitor for loss of glycemic control when sympathomimetics are administered to patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Also, adrenergic medications may decrease glucose uptake by muscle cells. For treatment of cold symptoms, nasal decongestants may be preferable for short term, limited use (1 to 3 days) as an alternative to systemic decongestants in patients taking medications for diabetes.
    Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Both cyclosporine and tacrolimus have been reported to cause hyperglycemia. Tacrolimus has been implicated in causing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in patients after renal transplantation. Both of these drugs may have direct beta-cell toxicity; the effects from cyclosporine may be dose-related. Patients should be monitored for changes in glycemic control if therapy with either of these immunosuppressant drugs is initiated in patients receiving dapagliflozin. (Moderate) Tacrolimus has been reported to cause hyperglycemia. Furthermore, tacrolimus has been implicated in causing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in patients after renal transplantation. Tacrolimus may have direct beta-cell toxicity. Patients should be monitored for worsening of glycemic control if Tacrolimus is initiated in patients receiving antidiabetic agents.
    Tafenoquine: (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risks of coadministration of tafenoquine and metformin due to the potential for increased metformin concentrations and lactic acidosis. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for metformin-related toxicities, and consider metformin dosage reduction, if needed. The effect of coadministration of tafenoquine on the pharmacokinetics of OCT2 and MATE substrates, like metformin, in humans is unknown; however, in vitro observations suggest the potential for increased concentrations of OCT2 and MATE substrates. Tafenoquine may interfere with these common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin.
    Tegaserod: (Moderate) Because tegaserod can enhance gastric emptying in diabetic patients, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to antidiabetic agents. The dosing of antidiabetic agents may require adjustment in patients who receive GI prokinetic agents concomitantly. (Moderate) Because tegaserod can enhance gastric emptying in patients with diabetes, blood glucose can be affected, which, in turn, may affect the clinical response to antidiabetic agents.The dosing of antidiabetic agents may require adjustment in patients who receive tegaserod concomitantly.
    Telmisartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Telmisartan; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Telmisartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Testosterone: (Moderate) Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease antidiabetic agent dosage requirements. Monitor blood glucose and HbA1C when these drugs are used together.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Thyroid hormones: (Minor) Thyroid hormone use may result in increased blood sugar and a loss of glycemic control in some patients. Interactions may or may not be clinically significant at usual replacement doses. Monitor blood sugars carefully when thyroid therapy is added, changed, or discontinued in patients receiving metformin. (Minor) Thyroid hormones are important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, the mobilization of glycogen stores, and protein synthesis. When thyroid hormones are added to existing diabetes therapy, the glucose-lowering effect may be reduced. Close monitoring of blood glucose is necessary for individuals who use oral antidiabetic agents whenever there is a change in thyroid treatment. It may be necessary to adjust the dose of antidiabetic agents if thyroid hormones are added or discontinued
    Timolol: (Moderate) Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required when a beta blocker is given with antidiabetic agents. Since beta blockers inhibit the release of catecholamines, these medications may hide symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremor, tachycardia, and blood pressure changes. Other symptoms, like headache, dizziness, nervousness, mood changes, or hunger are not blunted. Beta-blockers also exert complex actions on the body's ability to regulate blood glucose. Some beta-blockers, particularly non-selective beta-blockers such as propranolol, have been noted to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a delay in recovery of blood glucose to normal levels. Hyperglycemia has been reported as well and is possibly due to beta-2 receptor blockade in the beta cells of the pancreas. A selective beta-blocker may be preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus, if appropriate for the patient's condition. Selective beta-blockers, such as atenolol or metoprolol, do not appear to potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia. While beta-blockers may have negative effects on glycemic control, they reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke in patients with diabetes and their use should not be avoided in patients with compelling indications for beta-blocker therapy when no other contraindications are present.
    Tipranavir: (Moderate) New onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, and hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance have been reported with use of anti-retroviral protease inhibitors. A possible mechanism is impairment of beta-cell function. Onset averaged approximately 63 days after initiating protease inhibitor therapy, but has occurred as early as 4 days after beginning therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis has occurred in some patients including patients who were not diabetic prior to protease inhibitor treatment. Patients on antidiabetic therapy should be closely monitored for changes in glycemic control, specifically hyperglycemia, if protease inhibitor therapy is initiated.
    Tolazamide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Tolbutamide: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant sulfonylurea and metformin use; a sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Topiramate: (Moderate) Consider more frequent monitoring of patients receiving metformin and concomitant topiramate due to increased risk for lactic acidosis. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, such as topiramate, frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. In healthy volunteers, metformin Cmax and AUC increased by 17% and 25%, respectively, when topiramate was added, and oral plasma clearance of topiramate appears to be reduced when administered with metformin. The clinical significance of the effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin or topiramate are not known.
    Torsemide: (Moderate) Loop diuretics can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by producing an increase in blood glucose concentrations. Patients receiving dapagliflozin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. (Minor) Hyperglycemia has been detected during torsemide therapy, but the incidence is low. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between torsemide and all antidiabetic agents, including metformin. Monitor blood glucose.
    Trandolapril: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Tranylcypromine: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant dapagliflozin and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) use; a dapagliflozin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Triamterene; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Trilaciclib: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of metformin and trilaciclib may increase metformin exposure and increase the risk for lactic acidosis. If these drugs are given together, monitor for signs of metformin toxicity; metformin dose adjustments may be needed. Metformin is an OCT2 and MATE substrate; trilaciclib is an OCT2 and MATE inhibitor that may decrease metformin elimination by blocking renal tubular secretion.
    Trospium: (Moderate) Trospium, if used concomitantly with metformin, may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion like trospium may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems.
    Ultralente Insulin: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and insulin use; an insulin dose adjustment may be necessary. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia.
    Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. The effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control appear to be dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, thiazide diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Patients receiving metformin should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if any of these diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in some patients. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant metformin and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Monitor blood glucose during concomitant SGLT2 inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker use. Concomitant use may cause an increased blood glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics can decrease insulin sensitivity thereby leading to glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Diuretic-induced hypokalemia may also lead to hyperglycemia. Because of this, a potential pharmacodynamic interaction exists between thiazide diuretics and antidiabetic agents. It appears that the effects of thiazide diuretics on glycemic control are dose-related and low doses can be instituted without deleterious effects on glycemic control. In addition, diuretics reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. However, patients taking antidiabetic agents should be monitored for changes in blood glucose control if such diuretics are added or deleted. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.
    Vandetanib: (Moderate) Vandetanib could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Vandetanib increased the plasma concentrations of metformin, which is transported by the renal organic cation transporter type 2 (OCT2). Use caution and closely monitor for toxicities when administering vendetanib with metformin.
    Vonoprazan; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of clarithromycin and antidiabetic agents can result in significant hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended.
    Zonisamide: (Moderate) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as zonisamide frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Use of zonisamide with metformin may increase the risk for lactic acidosis; consider more frequent monitoring. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may also alter blood sugar; both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been described. Monitor blood glucose and for changes in glycemic control and be alert for evidence of an interaction.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of dapagliflozin; metformin during human pregnancy to determine a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. However, based on animal data showing adverse renal effects with dapagliflozin, the use of dapagliflozin; metformin is not recommended during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.[58334] When dapagliflozin was administered to juvenile rats during periods of animal development that correspond to the late second and third trimester of human development, increased incidence and/or severity of renal pelvic and tubular dilatations that were not fully reversible were evident at the lowest tested dose which was approximately 15 times human clinical exposure from a 10 mg dose. When dapagliflozin was studied in rabbits during intervals coinciding with the first trimester period of organogenesis in humans, no developmental toxicities were observed at any dose tested.[58334] Based on the results of a small study, it appears that metformin does pass through the placenta and the fetus is exposed to therapeutic concentrations of metformin.[31404] Metformin has been studied as monotherapy during human pregnancy.[31404] [46193] [26677] [46201] [46203] The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) continue to recommend human insulin as the standard of care in women with diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requiring medical therapy. [62358] Per ACOG, in women who decline insulin therapy or are unable to safely administer insulin, metformin is the preferred second-line choice. Per the ADA, metformin monotherapy may be used to treat GDM as a treatment option; however, no long term safety data are available for any oral agent. Metformin may cause a lower risk of neonatal hypoglycemia and less maternal weight gain than insulin; however, some data suggest that metformin may slightly increase the risk of prematurity. The ADA notes that in some clinical studies, nearly 50% of GDM patients initially treated with metformin have needed the addition of insulin in order to achieve acceptable glucose control. [62358] Premenopausal anovulatory females with insulin resistance (i.e., those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)) may resume ovulation as a result of metformin therapy and may be at risk of conception if adequate contraception is not used.[42485]

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Combination products containing metformin and dapagliflozin are used to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinicians may wish to consult the individual monographs for more information about each agent.
    Metformin: Metformin decreases hepatic gluconeogenesis production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization; insulin secretion remains unchanged while fasting insulin levels and day-long plasma insulin response may actually decrease. Metformin improves glucose utilization in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue by increasing cell membrane glucose transport. This effect may be due to improved binding of insulin to insulin receptors since metformin is not effective in diabetics without some residual functioning pancreatic islet cells. Metformin causes a 10—20% decrease in fatty-acid oxidation and a slight increase in glucose oxidation. Unlike phenformin, metformin does not inhibit the mitochondrial oxidation of lactate unless its plasma concentrations become excessive (i.e., in patients with renal failure) and/or hypoxia is present. Clinically, metformin lowers fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. The decrease in fasting plasma glucose is approximately 25—30%. Unlike oral sulfonylureas, it rarely causes hypoglycemia. Thus, metformin demonstrates more of an antihyperglycemic action than a hypoglycemic action. Metformin does not cause weight gain and in fact, may cause a modest weight loss due to drug-induced anorexia. Metformin also decreases plasma VLDL triglycerides resulting in modest decreases in plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol. Patients receiving metformin show a significant improvement in hemoglobin A1c, and a tendency toward improvement in the lipid profile, especially when baseline values are abnormally elevated.
    Dapagliflozin: Dapagliflozin is an inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), the transporter responsible for reabsorbing the majority of glucose filtered by the tubular lumen in the kidney. SGLT2 is expressed in the proximal renal tubules. By inhibiting SGLT2, dapagliflozin reduces reabsorption of filtered glucose and lowers the renal threshold for glucose (RTG), and thereby increases urinary glucose excretion, improving blood glucose control.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Dapagliflozin; metformin is administered orally. Bioequivalence between oral administration of the separate components and the combination product dapagliflozin; metformin tablets (Xigduo XR) has been demonstrated.
    Metformin: Metformin is distributed rapidly into peripheral body tissues and fluids and appears to distribute slowly into erythrocytes and to a deep tissue compartment (most likely GI tissues). The highest concentrations of metformin are found in the GI tract (10 times the concentrations in the plasma) and lower concentrations in the kidney, liver, and salivary gland tissue. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins. The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of metformin following a single, 850 mg dose is 654 +/- 358 L. Steady-state concentrations of metformin are reached within 1 to 2 days and are generally less than 1 mcg/mL. Metformin is not metabolized by the liver and this fact may explain why the risk of lactic acidosis is much less for metformin than for phenformin (i.e., approximately 10% of patients have an inherited defect in the ability to metabolize phenformin). The drug is excreted by the kidneys, largely unchanged, through an active tubular process; tubular secretion may be altered by many cationic drugs. Approximately 10% of an oral dose is excreted in the feces, presumably as unabsorbed metformin, and about 90% of a dose is excreted by the kidneys within 24 hours. Biliary excretion does not occur. Although the average elimination half-life in the plasma is 6.2 hours in patients with normal renal function, metformin accumulates in red blood cells, which leads to a much longer elimination half-life in the blood (17.6 hours).
    Dapagliflozin: Dapagliflozin is approximately 91% protein bound. Dapagliflozin is mainly metabolized via O-glucuronidation by UGT1A9; CYP3A4-mediated metabolism is a minor clearance pathway in humans. Dapagliflozin is extensively metabolized, primarily to yield dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide, which is an inactive metabolite. Dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide accounted for 61% of a 50 mg [14C]-dapagliflozin dose and is the predominant drug-related component in human plasma. Elimination of dapagliflozin and related metabolites is primarily via the renal pathway. Following a dose of dapagliflozin, 75% and 21% total radioactivity is excreted in urine and feces, respectively. In urine, less than 2% of the dose is excreted as parent drug. In feces, approximately 15% of the dose is excreted as parent drug. Following a single oral dose of dapagliflozin 10 mg, the mean plasma terminal half-life is approximately 12.9 hours.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes and drug transporters: Organic cationic transporter-2 (OCT2), multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE1 and MATE2k).
    Metformin: Drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2]/multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE1 and MATE2k] inhibitors such as ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine) could increase systemic exposure to metformin. An interaction between metformin and oral cimetidine has been observed, with a 60% increase in peak metformin plasma and whole blood concentrations and a 40% increase in plasma and whole blood metformin AUC, but no change in metformin elimination half-life. Careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the potentially interfering drug is recommended with concurrent use.
    Dapagliflozin: Dapagliflozin and dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide neither inhibit CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, or 3A4, nor induce CYP1A2, 2B6, or 3A4 based on in vitro studies. Dapagliflozin is a weak substrate of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) active transporter, and dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide is a substrate for the OAT3 active transporter. Dapagliflozin or dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide did not meaningfully inhibit P-gp, OCT2, OAT1, or OAT3 active transporters. Overall, dapagliflozin is unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of concurrently administered medications that are P-gp, OCT2, OAT1, or OAT3 substrates.

    Oral Route

    Metformin: The bioavailability of metformin is 50—60%. Administration of dapagliflozin; metformin XR in healthy subjects after a standard meal compared to the fasted state resulted in the same extent of metformin exposure as for metformin ER. Food has no relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin when administered as dapagliflozin; metformin combination tablets.
    Dapagliflozin: Following oral administration of dapagliflozin, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) is usually attained within 2 hours under fasting state. The Cmax and AUC values increase dose-proportionally with increases in dapagliflozin dose within the therapeutic dose range. The absolute oral bioavailability is 78% following a 10 mg PO dose. Administration of dapagliflozin; metformin XR in healthy subjects after a standard meal compared to the fasted state resulted in the same extent of exposure for dapagliflozin. Compared to the fasted state, the standard meal resulted in 35% reduction and a delay of 1 to 2 hours in the peak plasma concentrations of dapagliflozin. This effect of food is not considered to be clinically meaningful.